Cultural Values Influence Relations Between Parent Emotion Socialization and Adolescents’ Neural Responses to Peer Rejection

Abstract

Adolescents’ responses to negative social experiences can be influenced by parenting behaviors. This includes how parents react to their child’s expression of emotions, an aspect of parenting referred to as emotion socialization. Emotion socialization may intersect with cultural values, particularly collectivism, a socially-relevant attitude that emphasizes the importance of interpersonal relationships. Examination of a neural measure called the feedback-related negativity (FRN), thought to reflect the degree to which feedback is experienced as aversive, could help elucidate neural contributions to and consequences of the role of collectivism in such family dynamics. Thus, this study examined whether adolescents’ endorsement of collectivism moderated the association of parents’ dismissive emotion socialization responses (called override responses) and FRN following peer rejection. A community sample of 83 Latinx (n = 32), Asian American (n = 20), and non-Latinx White (n = 31) adolescents ages 13–17 completed a computerized peer feedback task while continuous electroencephalogram was recorded. Their parents completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Regression analyses demonstrated that adolescents’ endorsement of collectivism moderated the association of override responses and FRN following peer rejection, such that FRN was enhanced as override responses increased for adolescents endorsing low and moderate levels of collectivism. Results suggest that there is cultural variation in the association of the emotion socialization strategy of override and adolescents’ neural responses to socially-salient events. Findings have implications for parenting interventions designed to enhance adolescents’ emotion regulation abilities.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Youth Self-Report. Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Beilen, N. H., Green, L. M., & Thompson, R. J. (2018). Understanding emotion in adolescents: A review of emotional frequency, intensity, instability and clarity. Emotion Review, 11(1), 63–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bennett, C., Melvin, G. A., Quek, J., Saeedi, N., Gordon, M. S., & Newman, L. K. (2019). Perceived invalidation in adolescent borderline personality disorder: An investigation of parallel reports of caregiver responses to negative emotions. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 50, 209–221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bornstein, M. H., Putnick, D. L., Suwalsky, J. D., Venuti, P., de Falco, S., de Galperín, C., & Tichovolsky, M. (2012). Emotional relationships in mothers and infants: Culture-common and community-specific characteristics of dyads from rural and metropolitan settings in Argentina, Italy, and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43(2), 171–197.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bress, J. N., Foti, D., Kotov, R., Klein, D. N., & Hajcak, G. (2013). Blunted neural response to rewards prospectively predicts depression in adolescent girls. Psychophysiology, 50, 74–81.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Buckholdt, K. E., Parra, G. R., & Jobe-Shields, L. (2009). Emotion regulation as a mediator of the relation between emotion socialization and deliberate self-harm. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79(4), 482–490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Campos, J. J., Frankel, C. B., & Camras, L. (2004). On the nature of emotion regulation. Child Development, 75, 377–394.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Cao, J., Gu, R., Bi, X., Zhu, X., & Wu, H. (2015). Unexpected acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder manifest their social expectancy in ERPs during social feedback processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1745), 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cole, P.M., & Tan, P. Z. (2016). Emotion socialization from a cultural perspective. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research (pp. 516–542). The Guilford Press.

  10. Cracco, E., Goossens, L., & Braet, C. (2017). Emotion regulation across childhood and adolescence: Evidence for a maladaptive shift in adolescence. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 909–921.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. DiBartolo, P. M., & Rendon, M. J. (2012). A critical examination of the construct of perfectionism and its relationship to mental health in Asian and African Americans using a cross-cultural framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 139–152.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998). Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 241–273.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Murphy, B. C. (1996). Parents’ reactions to children’s negative emotions: Relations to children’s social competence and comforting behavior. Child Development, 67(5), 2227–2247.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Fabes, R. A., Leonard, S. A., Kupanoff, K., & Martin, C. L. (2001). Parental coping with children’s negative emotions: Relations with children’s emotional and social responding. Child Development, 72, 907–920.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Foti, D., Weinberg, A., Dien, J., & Hajcak, G. (2011). Event-related potential activity in the basal ganglia differentiates rewards from nonrewards: Temporospatial principal components analysis and source localization of the feedback negativity. Human Brain Mapping, 32(12), 2207–2216.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Friedlmeier, W., Corapci, F., & Cole, P. M. (2011). Emotion socialization in cross-cultural perspective. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(7), 410–427.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Garside, R. B. (2004). Parental socialization of discrete positive and negative emotions: Implications for emotional functioning. (Doctoral dissertation, The Catholic University of America). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, 4828.

  18. Garside, R. B., & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2002). Socialization of discrete negative emotions: Sex differences and links with psychological distress. Sex Roles, 47, 115–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gehring, W. J., & Willoughby, A. R. (2002). The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gains and losses. Science, 295(5563), 2279–2282.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Gonzalez-Ramos, G., Zayas, L. H., & Cohen, E. V. (1998). Child-rearing values of low-income, urban Puerto Rican mothers of preschool children. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29(4), 377–382.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How Families Communicate Emotionally. Erlbaum.

  22. Greenfield, P. M., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural pathways through universal development. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 461–490.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Gu, R., Jiang, Y., Kiser, S., Black, C. L., Broster, L. S., Luo, Y., & Kelly, T. H. (2015). Impulsive personality dimensions are associated with altered behavioral performance and neural responses in the monetary incentive delay task. Neuropsychologia, 103, 59–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Harrewijn, A., van der Molen, M. J. W., van Vliet, I. M., Tissier, R. L. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2018). Behavioral and EEG responses to social evaluation: A two-generation family study on social anxiety. NeuroImage: Clinical, 17, 549–562.

  25. Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: Aregression based approach. Guilford Press.

  26. Hazel, N. A., Oppenheimer, C. W., Technow, J. R., Young, J. F., & Hankin, B. L. (2014). Parent relationship quality buffers against the effect of peer stressors on depressive symptoms from middle childhood to adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 50, 2115–2123.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Heinrichs, N., Rapee, R. M., Alden, L. A., Bögels, S., Hofmann, S. G., Ja, Oh., & K., & Sakano, Y. (2006). Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1187–1197.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Hewig, J., Kretschmer, N., Trippe, R. H., Hecht, H., Coles, M. G. H., Holroyd, C. B., & Miltner, W. H. R. (2011). Why humans deviate from rational choice. Psychophysiology, 48, 507–514.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Hitokoto, H., Glazer, J., & Kitayama, S. (2016). Cultural shaping of neural responses: Feedback-related potentials vary with self-construal and face priming. Psychophysiology, 53, 52–63.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Holroyd, C. B., & Coles, M. G. H. (2002). The neural basis of human error processing: Reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 109(4), 679–709.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Holroyd, C. B., & Krigolson, O. E. (2007). Reward prediction error signals associated with a modified time estimation task. Psychophysiology, 44, 913–917.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Halgunseth, L. C., Harper, S., Robinson, J., Boyce, L., & Brady-Smith, C. (2004). Maternal intrusiveness, maternal warmth, and mother-toddler relationship outcomes: Variations across low-income ethnic and acculturation groups. Child Development, 75, 1613–1631.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Kehoe, C. E., Havinghurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2020). Tuning in to Teens: Investigating moderators of program effects and mechanisms of change of an emotion focused group parenting program. Developmental Psychology, 56(3), 623–637.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Keller, H., Lamm, B., Abels, M., Yovsi, R., Borke, J., Jensen, H., Papaligoura, Z., Holub, C., Lo, W., Tomiyama, A. J., Su, Y. (2006). Cultural models, socialization goals, and parenting ethnotheories: A multi-cultural analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 155–172.

  35. Kessel, E. M., Kujawa, A., Proudfit, G. H., & Klein, D. N. (2015). Neural reactivity to monetary rewards and losses differentiates social from generalized anxiety in children. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(7), 792–800.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A., & Garside, R. B. (2001). Factor structure, reliability, and validity of an emotion socialization scale. In C. O’Neal (Chair), Multiple approaches to emotion socialization: Methodology and emotional development. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.

  37. Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B. A., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K. T., & Garside, R. B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16, 326–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Kujawa, A., Arfer, K. B., Klein, D. N., & Proudfit, G. H. (2014). Electrocortical reactivity to social feedback in youth: A pilot study of the Island Getaway Task. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 140–147.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Levinson, A. R., Speed, B. C., Nelson, B., Bress, J. N., & Hajcak, G. (2017). Authoritarian parenting predicts reduced electrocortical response to observed adolescent offspring rewards. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 363–371.

  40. Liu, F. F., & Goto, S. G. (2007). Self-construal, mental distress, and family relations: A mediated moderation analysis with Asian American adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(2), 134–142.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Luck, S. J., & Gaspelin, N. (2017). How to get statistically significant effects in any ERP experiment (and why you shouldn’t). Psychophysiology, 54, 146–157.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Lugo-Candelas, C. I., Harvey, E., & Breux, R. P. (2015). Emotion socialization practices in Latina and European American mothers of preschoolers with behavior problems. Journal of Family Studies, 21(2), 144–162.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Magai, C. M. (1996). Emotions as a child self-rating scale. Long Island University: Unpublished.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Makeig, S., Bell, A. J., Jung, T. P., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1996). Independent component analysis of electroencephalographic data. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 8, 145–151.

    Google Scholar 

  45. McCord, B. L., & Raval, V. V. (2016). Asian Indian immigrant and White American maternal emotion socialization and child socio-emotional functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 464–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. McDermott, J. M., Pears, K. C., Bruce, J., Kim, H. K., Roos, L., Yoerger, K. L., & Fisher, P. A. (2018). Improving kindergarten readiness in children with developmental disabilities: Changes in neural correlates of response monitoring. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 7(3), 187–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Mezulis, A. H., Hyde, J. S., & Abramson, L. Y. (2006). The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style. Developmental Psychology, 42, 1012–1025.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Miller, G. A., & Yee, C. M. (2015). Moving psychopathology forward. Psychological Inquiry, 26(3), 263–267.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Morris, A. S., Criss, M. M., Silk, J. S., & Houltberg, B. J. (2017). The impact of parenting on emotion regulation during childhood and adolescence. Child Development Perspectives, 11, 233–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Mothes, H., Enge, S., & Strobel, A. (2016). The interplay between feedback-related negativity and individual differences in altruistic punishment: An EEG study. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 16, 276–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. O’Neal, C. R., & Magai, C. (2005). Do parents respond in different ways when children feel different emotions? The emotional context of parenting. Development and Psychopathology, 17(2), 467–487.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. Oppenheimer, C. W., Ladouceur, C. D., Waller, J. M., Ryan, N. D., Allen, K. B., Sheeber, L., Forbes, E. E., Dahl, R. E., & Silk, J. S. (2016). Emotion socialization in anxious youth: Parenting buffers emotional reactivity to peer negative events. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 1267–1278.

  53. Oyserman, D. (1993). The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 993–1009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3–72.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. Park, H., Coello, J. A., & Lau, A. S. (2014). Child socialization goals in East Asian versus Western nations from 1989 to 2010: Evidence for social change in parenting. Parenting: Science and Practice, 14(2), 69–91.

  56. Perry, N. B., Dollar, J. M., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., & Shanahan, L. (2020). Maternal socialization of child emotion and adolescent adjustment: Indirect effects through emotion regulation. Developmental Psychology, 56(3), 541–552.

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Pintar Breen, A. I., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Kahana-Kalman, R. (2017). Latina mothers’ emotion socialization and their children’s emotion knowledge. Infant and Child Development, 27, 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Pluess, M. (2015). Individual differences in environmental sensitivity. Child Development Perspectives, 9(3), 138–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Polezzi, D., Daum, I., Rubaltelli, E., Lotto, L., Civai, C., Sartori, G., & Rumiati, R. (2008). Mentalizing in economic decision-making. Behavioural Brain Research, 90, 218–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Rodas, N. V., Chavira, D. A., & Baker, B. L. (2017). Emotion socialization and internalizing behavior problems in diverse youth: A bidirectional relationship across childhood. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 62, 15–25.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Santesso, D. L., Dzyundzyak, A., & Segalowitz, S. J. (2011). Age, sex, and individual differences in punshment sensitivity: Factors influencing the feedback-related negativity. Psychophysiology, 48, 1481–1488.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Schneiders, J., Nicolson, N. A., Berkhof, J., Feron, F. J., DeVries, M. W., & van Os, J. (2007). Mood in daily contexts: Relationship with risk in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17(4), 697–722.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Severo, M. C., Walentowska, W., Moors, A., & Pourtois, G. (2017). Goal impact influences the evaluative component of performance monitoring: Evidence from ERPs. Biological Psychology, 129, 90–102.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Shorey, H. S., Cowan, G., & Sullivan, M. P. (2002). Predicting perceptions of discrimination among Hispanics and Anglos. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24(1), 3–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Silk, J. S. (2019). Context and dynamics: The new frontier for developmental research on emotion regulation. Developmental Psychology, 55(9), 2009–2014.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Singelis, T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 580–591.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Soder, H. E., Suchting, R., & Potts, G. F. (2020). Electrophysiological responses to appetitive and aversive outcomes: A comparison of college drinkers and non-drinkers. Neuroscience Letters, 714, 134549.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Soto, J. E., Lee, E. A., & Roberts, N. A. (2016). Convergence in feeling, divergence in physiology: How culture influences the consequences of disgust suppression and amplification among European Americans and Asian Americans. Psychophysiology, 53, 41–51.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Soto, J. A., Perez, C. R., Kim, Y.-H., Lee, E. A., & Minnick, M. R. (2011). Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese. Emotion, 11(6), 1450–1455.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83–110.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Tan, P. Z., Lee, K. H., Dahl, R. E., Nelson, E. E., Stroud, L. J., Siegle, G. J., & Silk, J. S. (2014). Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescents’ neural response to peer evaluation. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 8, 28–39.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Tan, P. Z., Oppenheimer, C. W., Ladouceur, C. D., Butterfield, R. D., & Silk, J. S. (2020). A review of associations between parental emotion socialization behaviors and the neural substrates of emotional reactivity and regulation in youth. Developmental Psychology, 56(3), 516–527.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Taylor, Z. E., Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Eggum, N. D., & Sulik, M. J. (2013). The relations of ego-resiliency and emotion socialization to the development of empathy and prosocial behavior across early childhood. Emotion, 13(5), 822–831.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Vargas, J. H., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2013). Ethnicity and contemporary American culture: A meta-analytic investigation of horizontal-vertical individualism-collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(2), 195–222.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Voegler, R., Peterburs, J., Bellebaum, C., & Straube, T. (2019). Modulation of feedback processing by social context in social anxiety disorder (SAD)- an event-related potentials (ERPs) study. Nature Scientific Reports, 9(4795), 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Wang, Q. (2001). Culture effects on adults’ earliest childhood recollection and self-description: Implications for the relation between memory and the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 220–233.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Waters, S. F., Karnilowicz, H. R., West, T. V., & Mendes, W. B. (2020). Keep it to yourself? Parent emotion suppression influences physiological linkage and interaction behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, Advance online publication.

  78. Wechsler, D. S. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. The Psychological Corporation.

  79. Wu Shortt, J., Fainsilber Katz, L., Allen, N. B., Leve, C., Davis, B., & Sheeber, L. B. (2016). Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder. Social Development, 25(1), 27–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Yoon, J., & Lau, A. S. (2008). Maladaptive perfectionism and depressive symptoms among Asian American college students: Contributions of interdependence and parental relations. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 92–101.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Zhu, X., Wang, L., Yang, S., Gu, R., Wu, H., & Luo, Y. (2016). The motivational hierarchy between the personal self and close others in the Chinese brain: An ERP study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(1467), 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Zhu, X., Wu, H., Yang, S., & Gu, R. (2016). Motivational hierarchy in the Chinese Brain: Primacy of the individual self, relational self, or collective self? Frontiers in Psychology, 7(877), 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was supported by a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Individual Predoctoral Fellowship (F31MH111187; PI: Amy M. Rapp, Ph.D.). Dr. Rapp was supported by a NIMH Institutional Training Grant (T32MH15144; PI: Steven Roose, M.D.) during preparation of the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amy M. Rapp.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Informed Consent Statement

Written informed consent was obtained from participants' legal guardian, and written assent was obtained from participants.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rapp, A.M., Tan, P.Z., Grammer, J.K. et al. Cultural Values Influence Relations Between Parent Emotion Socialization and Adolescents’ Neural Responses to Peer Rejection. Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00764-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Emotion socialization
  • Culture
  • Collectivism
  • Adolescent
  • Feedback-related negativity