Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 47, Issue 10, pp 1707–1722 | Cite as

Life Stress and Suicide in Adolescents

  • Jeremy G. StewartEmail author
  • Grant S. Shields
  • Erika C. Esposito
  • Elizabeth A. Cosby
  • Nicholas B. Allen
  • George M. Slavich
  • Randy P. Auerbach


Stress exposure is central to theories of suicide. To advance understanding of the relation between stress and suicide, we examined whether specific, theoretically-pertinent life stressors were differentially related to suicidal thinking versus suicidal behaviors among hospitalized adolescents. Participants were 197 (144 female) adolescents aged 13 to 19 years old (M = 15.61, SD = 1.48) recruited from an acute residential psychiatric treatment program. Participants were categorized into mutually exclusive groups: psychiatric controls (n = 38) with no lifetime history of suicide ideation or suicide attempts, suicide ideators (n = 99) with current ideation and no lifetime attempts, and suicide attempters (n = 60) with a lifetime history of suicide ideation and at least one attempt in the past month. Adolescents completed the Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adolescents (Adolescent STRAIN), which assessed life events and chronic difficulties occurring in five social-psychological categories: Interpersonal Loss, Physical Danger, Humiliation, Entrapment, and Role Change/Disruption. Additionally, they completed a structured interview and symptom questionnaires to capture concurrent psychopathology. Controlling for demographic and clinical covariates, only Interpersonal Loss events distinguished attempters from psychiatric controls (OR = 2.27) and ideators (OR = 1.49); no events or difficulties differentiated ideators from controls. These effects persisted when analyses were restricted to single attempters and when events following the most recent attempt were excluded. The findings elucidate potential social-environmental triggers of suicide. Ultimately, this may improve the identification of ideators most likely to make an attempt, enabling the deployment of targeted early interventions.


Stress exposure Adolescents Suicide Ideation-to-action frameworks STRAIN 



This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (K08 MH103443 to GMS and K23 MH097786 to RPA), the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (NARSAD Young Investigator Awards to JGS [25040] and GMS [23958]), the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (PRG-1-140-15 to JGS), Harvard Medical School (Kaplen Fellowship on Depression and Livingston Award to JGS), the Society in Science Branco Weiss Fellowship (GMS), the Tommy Fuss Fund (RPA), and the Simches Fund (RPA).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

Ethics approval for the study (Protocol #: 2012P000780) was obtained from the Partners Human Ethics Research Committee, the Institutional Review Board that oversees research at McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School. All procedures were in line with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10802_2019_534_MOESM1_ESM.doc (79 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 79 kb)


  1. Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., & Weissman, A. (1979). Assessment of suicidal intention: The scale for suicide ideation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 343–352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The hopelessness scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861–865.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernstein, D. P., & Fink, L. (1998). Childhood trauma questionnaire: A retrospective self- report: Manual. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace & Company.Google Scholar
  4. Bernstein, D. P., Stein, J. A., Newcomb, M. D., Walker, E., Pogge, D., Ahluvalia, T., Stokes, J., Handelsman, L., Medrano, M., Desmond, D., & Zule, W. (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the childhood trauma questionnaire. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27, 169–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Borges, G., Benjet, C., Medina-Mora, M. E., Orozco, R., Molnar, B. E., & Nock, M. K. (2008). Traumatic events and suicide-related outcomes among Mexico City adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 654–666.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bower, J. E., Crosswell, A. D., & Slavich, G. M. (2014). Childhood adversity and cumulative life stress: Risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Clinical Psychological Science, 2, 108–115.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Brent, D. A., Kolko, D. J., Wartella, M. E., Boylan, M. B., Moritz, G., Baugher, M., & Zelenak, J. P. (1993). Adolescent psychiatric inpatients' risk of suicide attempt at 6-month follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 95–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chu, C., Buchman-Schmitt, J. M., Stanley, I. H., Hom, M. A., Tucker, R. P., Hagan, C. R., et al. (2017). The interpersonal theory of suicide: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a decade of cross-national research. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 1313–1345.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Cukrowicz, K. C., Cheavens, J. S., Van Orden, K. A., Ragain, R. M., & Cook, R. L. (2011). Perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 26, 331–338.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Cuneo, M. G., Schrepf, A., Slavich, G. M., Thaker, P. H., Goodheart, M., Bender, D., Cole, S. W., Sood, A. K., & Lutgendorf, S. K. (2017). Diurnal cortisol rhythms, fatigue and psychosocial factors in five-year survivors of ovarian cancer. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 84, 139–142.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Daniel, S. S., Goldston, D. B., Erkanli, A., Heilbron, N., & Franklin, J. C. (2017). Prospective study of major loss life events and risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 47, 436–449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. DeJong, T. M., Overholser, J. C., & Stockmeier, C. A. (2010). Apples to oranges?: A direct comparison between suicide attempters and suicide completers. Journal of Affective Disorders, 124, 90–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dooley, L. N., Slavich, G. M., Moreno, P. I., & Bower, J. E. (2017). Strength through adversity: Moderate lifetime stress exposure is associated with psychological resilience in breast cancer survivors. Stress and Health, 33, 549–557.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Esposito, C. L., & Clum, G. A. (2003). The relative contribution of diagnostic and psychosocial factors in the prediction of adolescent suicidal ideation. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 386–395.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fairweather, A. K., Anstey, K. J., Rodgers, B., & Butterworth, P. (2006). Factors distinguishing suicide attempters from suicide ideators in a community sample: Social issues and physical health problems. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1235–1245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fergusson, D. M., Woodward, L. J., & Horwood, L. J. (2000). Risk factors and life processes associated with the onset of suicidal behaviour during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 30, 23–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldfarb, E. V., Shields, G. S., Daw, N. D., Slavich, G. M., & Phelps, E. A. (2017). Low lifetime stress exposure is associated with reduced stimulus–response memory. Learning & Memory, 24, 162–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gore, F. M., Bloem, P. J., Patton, G. C., Ferguson, J., Joseph, V., Coffey, C., Sawyer, S. M., & Mathers, C. D. (2011). Global burden of disease in young people aged 10-24 years: A systematic analysis. Lancet, 377, 2093–2102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Grover, K. E., Green, K. L., Pettit, J. W., Monteith, L. L., Garza, M. J., & Venta, A. (2009). Problem solving moderates the effects of life event stress and chronic stress on suicidal behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 1281–1290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hammen, C. (2018). Risk factors for depression: An autobiographical review. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 14, 1–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Harkness, K. L., Alavi, N., Monroe, S. M., Slavich, G. M., Gotlib, I. H., & Bagby, R. M. (2010). Gender differences in life events prior to onset of major depressive disorder: The moderating effect of age. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 791–803.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Harkness, K. L., & Monroe, S. M. (2016). The assessment and measurement of adult life stress: Basic premises, operational principles, and design requirements. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125, 727–745.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Harkness, K. L., & Stewart, J. G. (2009). Symptom specificity and the prospective generation of life events in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 278–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Holi, M. M., Pelkonen, M., Karlsson, L., Kiviruusu, O., Ruuttu, T., Heila, H., et al. (2005). Psychometric properties and clinical utility of the scale for suicidal ideation (SSI) in adolescents. BMC Psychiatry, 5, 8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Innamorati, M., Pompili, M., Masotti, V., Persone, F., Lester, D., Tatarelli, R., et al. (2008). Completed versus attempted suicide in psychiatric patients: A psychological autopsy study. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14, 216–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Johnson, S. L. (2005). Life events in bipolar disorder: Towards more specific models. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 1008–1027.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Joiner, T. E. (2005). Why people die by suicide. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kelly, T. M., Lynch, K. G., Donovan, J. E., & Clark, D. B. (2001). Alcohol use disorders and risk factor interactions for adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 31, 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. King, R. A., Schwab-Stone, M., Flisher, A. J., Greenwald, S., Kramer, R. A., Goodman, S. H., et al. (2001). Psychosocial and risk behavior correlates of youth suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 837–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Klonsky, E. D., Saffer, B. Y., & Bryan, C. J. (2018). Ideation-to-action theories of suicide: A conceptual and empirical update. Current Opinion in Psychology, 22, 38–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Klonsky, E. D., & May, A. M. (2015). The three-step theory (3ST): A new theory of suicide rooted in the “ideation-to-action” framework. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 8, 114–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lam, J. C. W., Shields, G. S., Trainor, B. C., Slavich, G. M., & Yonelinas, A. P. (2019). Greater lifetime stress exposure predicts blunted cortisol but heightened DHEA responses to acute stress. Stress and Health, 35, 15–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu, R. T., & Miller, I. (2014). Life events and suicidal ideation and behavior: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 181–192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mackin, D. M., Perlman, G., Davila, J., Kotov, R., & Klein, D. N. (2017). Social support buffers the effect of interpersonal life stress on suicidal ideation and self-injury during adolescence. Psychological Medicine, 47, 1149–1161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. March, J. S., Parker, J. D., Sullivan, K., Stallings, P., & Conners, C. K. (1997). The multidimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): Factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 554–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mars, B., Heron, J., Klonsky, E. D., Moran, P., O'Connor, R. C., Tilling, K., Wilkinson, P., & Gunnell, D. (2019). What distinguishes adolescents with suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide? A population-based birth cohort study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60, 91–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Massing-Schaffer, M., Helms, S. W., Rudolph, K. D., Slavich, G. M., Hastings, P. D., Giletta, M., Nock, M. K., & Prinstein, M. J. (2019). Preliminary associations among relational victimization, targeted rejection, and suicidality in adolescents: A prospective study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 48, 288–295.Google Scholar
  38. McLoughlin, A. B., Gould, M. S., & Malone, K. M. (2015). Global trends in teenage suicide: 2003-2014. The Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 108, 765–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McFeeters, D., Boyda, D., & O'Neill, S. (2015). Patterns of stressful life events: Distinguishing suicide ideators from suicide attempters. Journal of Affective Disorders, 175, 192–198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. McKeown, R. E., Garrison, C. Z., Cuffe, S. P., Waller, J. L., Jackson, K. L., & Addy, C. L. (1998). Incidence and predictors of suicidal behaviors in a longitudinal sample of young adolescents. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 612–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Miller, A. B., Eisenlohr-Moul, T., Giletta, M., Hastings, P. D., Rudolph, K. D., Nock, M. K., & Prinstein, M. J. (2017). A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior: Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85, 712–722.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Mortier, P., Auerbach, R. P., Alonso, J., Bantjes, J., Benjet, C., Cuijpers, P., et al. (2018). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among first-year college students: Results from the WMH-ICS project. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 57, 263–273.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Mufson, L., Dorta, K. P., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Olfson, M., & Weissman, M. M. (2004). A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 577–584.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Nock, M. K., Green, J. G., Hwang, I., McLaughlin, K. A., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2013). Prevalence, correlates, and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. JAMA Psychiatry, 70, 300–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Nock, M. K., Holmberg, E. B., Photos, V. I., & Michel, B. D. (2007). Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors interview: Development, reliability, and validity in an adolescent sample. Psychological Assessment, 19, 309–317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. O'Connor, R. C., Cleare, S., Eschle, S., Wetherall, K., & Kirtley, O. J. (2016). The integrated motivational-volitional model of suicidal behavior. In R. C. O’Connor & J. Pirkis (Eds.), The international handbook of suicide prevention – Second Edition (pp. 220–240). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  47. O'Connor, R. C., & Nock, M. K. (2014). The psychology of suicidal behaviour. Lancet Psychiatry, 1, 73–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. O'Connor, R. C., Rasmussen, S., & Hawton, K. (2012). Distinguishing adolescents who think about self-harm from those who engage in self-harm. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200, 330–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Paykel, E. S. (1997). The interview for recent life events. Psychological Medicine, 27, 301–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Pettit, J. W., Green, K. L., Grover, K. E., Schatte, D. J., & Morgan, S. T. (2011). Domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among inpatient adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 494–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Platt, B., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Lau, J. Y. (2013). The role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. Depression and Anxiety, 30, 809–821.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rudolph, K. D. (2009). The interpersonal context of adolescent depression. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. M. Hild (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 377–418). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Rathus, J. H., & Miller, A. L. (2002). Dialectical behavior therapy adapted for suicidal adolescents. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 32, 146–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Sheehan, D. V., Sheehan, K. H., Shytle, R. D., Janavs, J., Bannon, Y., Rogers, J. E., Milo, K. M., Stock, S. L., & Wilkinson, B. (2010). Reliability and validity of the Mini international neuropsychiatric interview for children and adolescents (MINI-KID). Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71, 313–326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Shields, G. S., Doty, D., Shields, R. H., Gower, G., Slavich, G. M., & Yonelinas, A. P. (2017a). Recent life stress exposure is associated with poorer long-term memory, working memory, and self-reported memory. Stress, 20, 598–607.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Shields, G. S., Moons, W. G., & Slavich, G. M. (2017b). Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults. Stress, 20, 75–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Slavich, G. M., & Shields, G. S. (2018). Assessing lifetime stress exposure using the stress and adversity inventory for adults (adult STRAIN): An overview and initial validation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80, 17–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Slavich, G. M., Stewart, J. G., Esposito, E. C., Shields, G. S., & Auerbach, R. P. (2019). The Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adolescents (Adolescent STRAIN): Associations with mental and physical health, risky behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses in youth seeking treatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
  60. Snaith, R. P., Hamilton, M., Morley, S., Humayan, A., Hargreaves, D., & Trigwell, P. (1995). A scale for the assessment of hedonic tone the Snaith-Hamilton pleasure scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 99–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Stein, D. J., Chiu, W. T., Hwang, I., Kessler, R. C., Sampson, N., Alonso, J., Borges, G., Bromet, E., Bruffaerts, R., de Girolamo, G., Florescu, S., Gureje, O., He, Y., Kovess-Masfety, V., Levinson, D., Matschinger, H., Mneimneh, Z., Nakamura, Y., Ormel, J., Posada-Villa, J., Sagar, R., Scott, K. M., Tomov, T., Viana, M. C., Williams, D. R., & Nock, M. K. (2010). Cross-national analysis of the associations between traumatic events and suicidal behavior: Findings from the WHO world mental health surveys. PLoS One, 5, e10574.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Stewart, S. M., Eaddy, M., Horton, S. E., Hughes, J., & Kennard, B. (2017a). The validity of the interpersonal theory of suicide in adolescence: A review. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 46, 437–449.Google Scholar
  64. Stewart, J. G., Glenn, C. R., Esposito, E. C., Cha, C. B., Nock, M. K., & Auerbach, R. P. (2017b). Cognitive control deficits differentiate adolescent suicide ideators from attempters. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 78, e614–e621.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Stewart, J. G., Esposito, E. C., Glenn, C. R., Gilman, S. E., Pridgen, B., Gold, J., & Auerbach, R. P. (2017c). Adolescent self-injurers: Comparing non-ideators, suicide ideators, and suicide attempters. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 84, 105–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Stewart, J. G., & Harkness, K. L. (2015). The interpersonal toxicity of excessive reassurance-seeking: Evidence from a longitudinal study of romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34, 392–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stewart, J. G., & Harkness, K. L. (2017). Testing a revised interpersonal theory of depression using a laboratory measure of excessive reassurance seeking. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73, 331–348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Stewart, J. G., Kim, J. C., Esposito, E. C., Gold, J., Nock, M. K., & Auerbach, R. P. (2015). Predicting suicide attempts in depressed adolescents: Clarifying the role of disinhibition and childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Affective Disorders, 187, 27–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Stewart, J. G., Valeri, L., Esposito, E. C., & Auerbach, R. P. (2018). Peer victimization and suicidal thoughts and behaviors in depressed adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46, 581–596.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Stone, L. B., Liu, R. T., & Yen, S. (2014). Adolescent inpatient girls report of dependent life events predicts prospective suicide risk. Psychiatry Research, 219, 137–142.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  72. Tang, F., Xue, F., & Qin, P. (2015). The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: A large scale cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 182.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Toussaint, L., Shields, G. S., Dorn, G., & Slavich, G. M. (2016). Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health. Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 1004–1014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. van Alphen, N. R., Stewart, J. G., Esposito, E. C., Pridgen, B., Gold, J., & Auerbach, R. P. (2017). Predictors of rehospitalization for depressed adolescents admitted to acute psychiatric treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 78, 592–598.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Van Orden, K. A., Witte, T. K., Cukrowicz, K. C., Braithwaite, S. R., Selby, E. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2010). The interpersonal theory of suicide. Psychological Review, 117, 575–600.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Vergara, G. A., Stewart, J. G., Cosby, E. A., Lincoln, S. H., & Auerbach, R. P. (2019). Non-suicidal self-injury and suicide in depressed adolescents: Impact of peer victimization and bullying. Journal of Affective Disorders, 245, 744–749.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Whitlock, J., Wyman, P. A., & Moore, S. R. (2014). Connectedness and suicide prevention in adolescents: Pathways and implications. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 44, 246–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in PsychologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  5. 5.McLean HospitalBelmontUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA
  7. 7.Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology and Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  8. 8.Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  9. 9.Division of Clinical Developmental NeuroscienceSackler InstituteNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations