Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 1001–1012 | Cite as

Effects of Parenting and Community Violence on Aggression-Related Social Goals: a Monozygotic Twin Differences Study

  • Isaiah Sypher
  • Luke W. HydeEmail author
  • Melissa K. Peckins
  • Rebecca Waller
  • Kelly Klump
  • S. Alexandra Burt
Article

Abstract

Community violence exposure and harsh parenting have been linked to maladaptive outcomes, possibly via their effects on social cognition. The Social Information Processing (SIP) model has been used to study distinct socio-cognitive processes, demonstrating links between community violence exposure, harsh parenting, and maladaptive SIP. Though much of this research assumes these associations are causal, genetic confounds have made this assumption difficult to rigorously test. Comparisons of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins provide one empirical test of possible causality, as differences between MZ twins must be environmental in origin. The present study examined effects of parenting and community violence exposure on SIP - specifically aggressive and avoidant social goals - in a sample of 426 MZ twin dyads (N = 852 twins, 48% female). Phenotypically, we found that lower positive parenting and greater harsh parenting were associated with greater endorsement of dominance and revenge goals. We also found that indirect and direct community violence exposure was associated with greater endorsement of avoidance goals. Using an MZ difference design, we found that the relationships between lower levels of positive parenting and endorsement of dominance and revenge goals were due, in part, to environmental processes. Moreover, the relationships between the impact of indirect and direct community violence exposure and avoidance goals, as well as between the impact of indirect community violence exposure and revenge goals, appeared to be due to non-shared environmental processes. Our results establish social and contextual experiences as important environmental influences on children’s social goals, which may increase risk for later psychopathology.

Keywords

Social goals Community violence Parenting Monozygotic twin differences 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the following: R01-MH081813 from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), R01-HD066040 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). M.K. Peckins was supported by an NICHD T32 Fellowship in Developmental Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan (2T32HD007109-36) R. Waller was supported by a National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) T32 Fellowship in the Addiction Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan (2T32AA007477-24A1). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIMH, the NICHD, the NIAAA, or the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All study procedures were approved by the Michigan State University Institutional Review Board.

Informed Consent

Informed consent and assent were obtained from all parents and children, respectively.

Supplementary material

10802_2018_506_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 18 kb)

References

  1. Asbury, K., Dunn, J., Pike, A., & Plomin, R. (2003). Nonshared environmental influences on individual differences in early behavioral development: An MZ differences study. Child Development, 74, 933–943.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1968). A social learning interpretation of psychological dysfunctions. In P. London & D. Rosenham (Eds.), Foundations of abnormal psychology (pp. 293–344). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliff: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Baumrind, D. (1997). Necessary distinctions. Psychological Inquiry, 8(3), 176–182.Google Scholar
  6. Bradshaw, C. P., & Garbarino, J. (2004). Social cognition as a mediator of the influence of family and community violence on adolescent development: Implications for intervention. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1036, 85–105.  https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1330.005.Google Scholar
  7. Bradshaw, C. P., Rodgers, C. R., Ghandour, L. A., & Garbarino, J. (2009). Social–cognitive mediators of the association between community violence exposure and aggressive behavior. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(3), 199–210.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017362.Google Scholar
  8. Burgers, D. E., & Drabick, D. A. (2016). Community violence exposure and generalized anxiety symptoms: Does executive functioning serve a moderating role among low income, urban youth? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(8), 1543–1557.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0144-x.Google Scholar
  9. Burke, J. D., Pardini, D. A., & Loeber, R. (2008). Reciprocal relationships between parenting behavior and disruptive psychopathology from childhood through adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(5), 679–692.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9219-7.Google Scholar
  10. Burt, S. A., & Klump, K. L. (2013). The Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR): An update. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16(1), 344–350.  https://doi.org/10.1017/thg.2012.87.
  11. Burt, S. A., Mcgue, M., Iacono, W. G., & Krueger, R. F. (2006). Differential Parent – Child Relationships and Adolescent Externalizing Symptoms : Cross-Lagged Analyses Within a Monozygotic Twin Differences Design, 42(6), 1289–1298.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.6.1289.
  12. Calvete, E., & Orue, I. (2011). The impact of violence exposure on aggressive behavior through social information processing in adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry., 81, 38–50.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01070.x.Google Scholar
  13. Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558–577.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.558.Google Scholar
  14. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74.
  15. Dishion, T. J., & McMahon, R. J. (1998). Parental monitoring and the prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior: A conceptual and empirical formulation. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1(1), 61–75.Google Scholar
  16. Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 1678–1688.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2270481.Google Scholar
  17. Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Valente, E. (1995). Social information-processing patterns partially mediate the effect of early physical abuse on later conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(4), 632–643.Google Scholar
  18. Elkins, I. J., McGue, M. K., & Iacono, W. G. (1997). Genetic and environmental influences on parent–son relationships: Evidence for increasing genetic influence during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 33, 351–363.Google Scholar
  19. Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. The American Psychologist, 59(2), 77–92.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.2.77.
  20. Flowers, A. L., Hastings, T. L., & Kelley, M. L. (2000). Development of a screening instrument for exposure to violence in children: The KID-SAVE. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22(1), 91–104.Google Scholar
  21. Fowler, P. J., Tompsett, C. J., Braciszewski, J. M., Jacques-Tiura, A. J., & Baltes, B. B. (2009). Community violence: A meta-analysis on the effect of exposure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1), 227e259.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579409000145.Google Scholar
  22. Glasmeier, A. (2018). Living Wage Calculation for Michigan. Retrieved from http://livingwage.mit.edu/states/26
  23. Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Halpert, J. A. (2003). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Moving from markers to mechanisms of risk. Psychological Bulletin, 129(3), 447–466.Google Scholar
  24. Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, L. R., & Spindler, A. (2003). Community violence exposure, social cognition, and aggression among urban elementary school children. Child Development, 74, 1561–1576.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00623.Google Scholar
  25. Gulley, L. D., Oppenheimer, C. W., & Hankin, B. L. (2014). Associations among negative parenting, attention bias to anger, and social sanxiety among youth. Developmental Psychology, 50, 577–585.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033624.Google Scholar
  26. Hoeve, M., Dubas, J. S., Eichelsheim, V. I., Van Der Laan, P. H., Smeenk, W., & Gerris, J. R. (2009). The relationship between parenting and delinquency: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(6), 749–775.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9310-8.Google Scholar
  27. Hudley, C., & Graham, S. (1993). An attributional intervention to reduce peer-directed aggression among African-American boys. Child Development, 64, 124–138.Google Scholar
  28. Heidgerken, A. D., Hughes, J. N., Cavell, T. A., & Willson, V. L. (2004). Direct and indirect effects of parenting and children’s goals on child aggression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 684–693.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_4.Google Scholar
  29. Hughes, J. N., Webster-Stratton, B. T., & Cavell, T. A. (2004). Development and validation of a gender-balanced measure of aggression-relevant social cognition. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(2), 292–302.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_11.Google Scholar
  30. Kawabata, Y., Alink, L. R., Tseng, W. L., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Crick, N. R. (2011). Maternal and paternal parenting styles associated with relational aggression in children and adolescents: A conceptual analysis and meta-analytic review. Developmental Review, 31(4), 240–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2011.08.001.Google Scholar
  31. Keijsers, L. (2016). Parental monitoring and adolescent problem behaviors: How much do we really know? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 40(3), 271–281.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025415592515.Google Scholar
  32. Khaleque, A. (2013). Perceived parental warmth, and children’s psychological adjustment, and personality dispositions: A meta-analysis. Journal of child and Family studies, 22(2), 297–306 Meta-analytic work looking at child perceptions of parenting.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-012-9579-z.
  33. Klahr, A. M., & Burt, S. A. (2014). Elucidating the etiology of individual differences in parenting: A meta-analysis of behavioral genetic research. Psychological Bulletin, 140(2), 544–586.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034205.Google Scholar
  34. Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2002). Contextual social–cognitive mediators and child outcome: A test of the theoretical model in the coping power program. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 945–967.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579402004157.Google Scholar
  35. Lunkenheimer, E., Ram, N., Skowron, E. A., & Yin, P. (2017). Harsh parenting, child behavior problems, and the dynamic coupling of parents’ and children’s positive behaviors. Journal of Family Psychology, 31(6), 689–698.  https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000310.Google Scholar
  36. MacKinnon-Lewis, C., Lindsey, E. W., Frabutt, J. M., & Chambers, J. C. (2014). Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: The role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents’ hostile attributions of mothers’ intent. Journal of Adolescence, 37(6), 851–861.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.05.005.Google Scholar
  37. McDonald, K. L., Baden, R. E., & Lochman, J. E. (2013). Parenting influences on the social goals of aggressive children. Applied Developmental Science, 17, 29–38.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2013.748423.Google Scholar
  38. Neiderhiser, J. M., Pike, A., Hetherington, E. M., & Reiss, D. (1998). Adolescent perceptions as mediators of parenting: Genetic and environmental contributions. Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 1459–1469.Google Scholar
  39. Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  40. Nix, R. L., Pinderhughes, E. E., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & McFadyen-Ketchum, S. A. (1999). The relation between mothers’ hostile attribution tendencies and children’s externalizing behavior problems: The mediating role of mothers’ harsh discipline practices. Child Development, 70, 896–909.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00065.Google Scholar
  41. Ollendick, T. H., Langley, A. K., Jones, R. T., & Kephart, C. (2001). Fear in children and adolescents: Relations with negative life events, attributional style, and avoidant coping. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42(8), 1029–1034.Google Scholar
  42. Orobio de Castro, B., Veerman, J. W., Koops, W., Bosch, J. D., & Monshouwer, H. J. (2002). Hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 73, 916–934.Google Scholar
  43. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family processes. Eugene: Castalia.Google Scholar
  44. Peeters, H., Van Gestel, S., Vlietinck, R., Derom, C., & Derom, R. (1998). Validation of a telephone zygosity questionnaire in twins of known zygosity. Behavior Genetics, 28(3), 159–161.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021416112215.
  45. Pettit, G. S., & Mize, J. (2007). Social-cognitive processes in the development of antisocial and violent behavior. In D. J. Flannery, A. T. Vazsonyi, & I. D. Waldman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression (pp. 322–343). New York: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816840.016.
  46. Pike, A., McGuire, S., Hetherington, E. M., Reiss, D., & Plomin, R. (1996). Family environment and adolescent depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior: A multivariate genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology, 32, 590–603.Google Scholar
  47. Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin, P. (2001). Behavioral genetics (4th ed.). New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  48. Powers, S. I., Welsh, D. P., & Wright, V. (1994). Adolescents' affective experience of family behaviors: The role of subjective understanding. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4(4), 585–600.Google Scholar
  49. Raver, C. C., Blair, C., Garrett-Peters, P., & Family Life Project Key Investigators. (2015). Poverty, household chaos, and interparental aggression predict children’s ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions. Development and Psychopathology, 27(3), 695–708.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414000935.Google Scholar
  50. Rosenthal, B. S. (2000). Exposure to community violence in adolescence: Trauma symptoms. Adolescence, 35(138), 271–284.Google Scholar
  51. Rutter, M. (2002). Nature, nurture, and development: From evangelism through science toward policy and practice. Child Development, 73, 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00388.Google Scholar
  52. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918–924.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5328.918.Google Scholar
  53. Samson, J. E., Ojanen, T., & Hollo, A. (2012). Social goals and youth aggression: Meta-analysis of prosocial and antisocial goals. Social Development, 21(4), 645–666.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2012.00658.x.Google Scholar
  54. Selman, R. L. (1971). Taking another’s perspective: Role-taking development in early childhood. Child Development, 42, 1721–1734.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00388.Google Scholar
  55. Shahinfar, A., Kupersmidt, J. B., & Matza, L. S. (2001). The relation between exposure to violence and social information processing among incarcerated adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(1), 136–141.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.110.1.136.Google Scholar
  56. Simons-Morton, B., & Chen, R. (2009). Peer and parent influences on school engagement among early adolescents. Youth & Society, 41(1), 3–25.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X09334861.Google Scholar
  57. Smith, C., Lizotte, A. J., Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (1995). Resilient youth: Identifying factors that prevent high-risk youth from engaging in delinquency and drug use. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Course, 4, 217–247.Google Scholar
  58. Sturge-Apple, M. L., Davies, P. T., Martin, M. J., Cicchetti, D., & Hentges, R. F. (2012). An examination of the impact of harsh parenting contexts on children’s adaptation within an evolutionary framework. Developmental Psychology, 48(3), 791–805.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026908.Google Scholar
  59. Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R., & Rashotte, C. (1999). Test of word Reading efficiency (TOWRE) psychological corporation. New York.Google Scholar
  60. Viding, E., Fontaine, N. M., Oliver, B. R., & Plomin, R. (2009). Negative parental discipline, conduct problems and callous–unemotional traits: Monozygotic twin differences study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(5), 414–419.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S095457941200048X.Google Scholar
  61. Weis, R., & Lovejoy, M. C. (2002). Information processing in everyday life: Emotion-congruent bias in mothers' reports of parent-child interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(1), 216–230.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.83.1.216.Google Scholar
  62. Yoshizawa, H., Yoshida, T., Harada, C., Asano, R., Tamai, R., & Yoshida, T. (2017). Effects of parenting and discipline on antisocial behavior: Mediating role of adaptive and maladaptive social-information processing. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(2), 281–294.  https://doi.org/10.5926/jjep.65.281.Google Scholar
  63. Ziv, Y. (2012). Exposure to violence, social information processing, and problem behavior in preschool children. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 429–441.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040646.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isaiah Sypher
    • 1
  • Luke W. Hyde
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Melissa K. Peckins
    • 1
  • Rebecca Waller
    • 1
    • 4
  • Kelly Klump
    • 5
  • S. Alexandra Burt
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Center for Human Growth and DevelopmentUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Social ResearchUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations