The study examined the efficacy of a school-based mindfulness intervention on mental health and emotion regulation outcomes among adolescents in a wait-list controlled trial. The study also explored mediators and moderators of intervention effects. A total of 145 predominantly ethnic minority (Asian and Latino) 9th grade students with elevated mood symptoms were randomized to receive a 12-week mindfulness intervention at the start of the academic year, or in the second semester of the year. Students completed measures of emotion regulation and mental health symptoms at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant treatment effects of the mindfulness intervention for internalizing symptoms and perceived stress at post-treatment. Pooled pre-to-post treatment analyses of the entire sample revealed a small effect size for attention problems, medium for internalizing and externalizing problems, and large for perceived stress. We also found a small effect size for cognitive reappraisal, medium for expressive suppression, emotional processing, emotional expression, and rumination and large for avoidance fusion. Mediation analyses showed that treatment effects on internalizing symptoms and perceived stress were mediated by reductions in expressive suppression and rumination. Moderation analyses revealed that treatment effects were larger among youth with more severe problems at baseline for internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and perceived stress. However, for attention problems, students with lower severity at baseline appeared to have larger treatment gains. The study provided evidence that mindfulness intervention was beneficial for low-income ethnic minority youth in reducing perceived stress and internalizing problems, and improving emotion regulation outcomes. Furthermore, mindfulness training was associated with reduced mental health symptoms via improvements in emotion regulation.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abela, J. R. Z., Vanderbilt, E., & Rochon, A. (2004). A test of the integration of the response styles and social support theories of depression in third and seventh grade children. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 653–674. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.23.5.653.50752.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the youth self-report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Ahmed, S. P., Bittencourt-Hewitt, A., & Sebastian, C. L. (2015). Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2015.07.006.
Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: a meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.
Angold, A., Prendergast, M., Cox, A., Harrington, R., Simonoff, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). The child and adolescent psychiatric assessment (CAPA). Psychological Medicine, 25(04), 739–753. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329170003498X.
Angold, A., Erkanli, A., Farmer, E. M., Fairbank, J. A., Burns, B. J., Keeler, G., & Costello, E. J. (2002). Psychiatric disorder, impairment, and service use in rural African American and white youth. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(10), 893–901.
Beauchemin, J., Hutchins, T. L., & Patterson, F. (2008). Mindfulness meditation may lessen anxiety, promote social skills, and improve academic performance among adolescents with learning disabilities. Complementary Health Practice Review, 13(1), 34–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1533210107311624.
Betts, J., Gullone, E., & Allen, J. S. (2009). An examination of emotion regulation, temperament, and parenting style as potential predictors of adolescent depression risk status: A correlational study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 473–485. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151008X314900.
Biegel, G. M., Brown, K. W., Shapiro, S. L., & Schubert, C. M. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of adolescent psychiatric outpatients: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 855–866. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016241.
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph077.
Black, D. S., Milam, J., & Sussman, S. (2009). Sitting-meditation interventions among youth: A review of treatment efficacy. Pediatrics, 124, 532–541. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-3434.
Borders, A., Earleywine, M., & Jajodia, A. (2010). Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination? Aggressive Behavior, 36(1), 28–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20327.
Bridges, L. J., Denham, S. A., & Ganiban, J. M. (2004). Definitional issues in emotion regulation research. Child Development, 75(2), 340–345. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00675.x.
Broderick, P. C. (2013). Learning to Breathe: A mindfulness curriculum for adolescents to cultivate emotion regulation, attention, and performance. New Harbinger Publications.
Broderick, P. C., & Metz, S. (2009). Learning to BREATHE: A pilot trial of a mindfulness curriculum for adolescents. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2(1), 35–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/1754730X.2009.9715696.
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promise in defining and measuring mindfulness: Observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 242–248. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph078.
Burke, C. A. (2010). Mindfulness-based approaches with children and adolescents: A preliminary review of current research in an emergent field. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 133–144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-009-9282-x.
Butler, E. A., Egloff, B., Wlhelm, F. H., Smith, N. C., Erickson, E. A., & Gross, J. J. (2003). The social consequences of expressive suppression. Emotion, 3(1), 48–67. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3522.214.171.124.
Butler, E. A., Lee, T. L., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Emotion regulation and culture: Are the social consequences of emotion suppression culture-specific? Emotion, 7(1), 30–48. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-35126.96.36.199.
Chambers, R., Gullone, E., & Allen, N. B. (2009). Mindful emotion regulation: An integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(6), 560–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.06.005.
Chang, E. C., Tsai, W., & Sanna, L. J. (2010). Examining the relations between rumination and adjustment: Do ethnic differences exist between Asian and European Americans? Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(1), 46–56. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018821.
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.
Davis, R. N., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(6), 699–711.
Dickson, K. S., Ciesla, J. A., & Reilly, L. C. (2012). Rumination, worry, cognitive avoidance, and behavioral avoidance: Examination of temporal effects. Behavior Therapy, 43(3), 629–640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2011.11.002.
Dimidjian, S., Hollon, S. D., Dobson, K. S., Schmaling, K. B., Kohlenberg, R. J., Addis, M. E., et al. (2006). Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 658–670. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.74.4.658.
Elkin, I., Gibbons, R. D., Shea, M. T., Sotsky, S. M., Watkins, J. T., Pilkonis, P. A., & Hedeker, D. (1995). Initial severity and differential treatment outcome in the National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(5), 841–847. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.5.841.
Evans, D. R., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2011). Why do mindful people worry less?. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(6), 505–510.
Fung, J., Guo, S., Jin, J., Bear, L., & Lau, A. (2016). A pilot randomized trial evaluating a school-based mindfulness intervention for ethnic minority youth. Mindfulness, 7(4), 819–828.
Greco, L. A., Lambert, W., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Psychological inflexibility in childhood and adolescence: Development and evaluation of the avoidance and fusion questionnaire for youth. Psychological Assessment, 20(2), 93–102. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.52.
Gross, J. J. (1998a). Antecedent-and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 224–237. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206.
Gross, J. J. (1998b). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-26220.127.116.111.
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39(3), 281–291. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0048577201393198.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348–362. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1688.
Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York: Guilford Press.
Gudiño, O. G., Lau, A. S., & Hough, R. L. (2008). Immigrant status, mental health need, and mental health service utilization among high-risk Hispanic and Asian Pacific islander youth. Child & Youth Care Forum, 37, 139–152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-008-9056-4.
Gudiño, O. G., Lau, A. S., Yeh, M., McCabe, K. M., & Hough, R. L. (2009). Understanding racial/ethnic disparities in youth mental health services: Do disparities vary by problem type? Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17(1), 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1063426608317710.
Gullone, E., & Taffe, J. (2012). The emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents (ERQ–CA): A psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 409–417. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025777.
Guo, S., Kataoka, S. H., Bear, L., & Lau, A. S. (2014). Differences in school-based referrals for mental health care: Understanding racial/ethnic disparities between Asian American and Latino youth. School Mental Health, 6(1), 27–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-013-9108-2.
Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 639–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80013-3.
Hayes, A. F. (2006). A primer on multilevel modeling. Human communication research, 32(4), 385–410.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Hayes, A. M., & Feldman, G. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 255–262. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph080.
Hilt, L. M., McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Examination of the response styles theory in a community sample of young adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(4), 545–556. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9384-3.
Horowitz, J. L., Garber, J., Ciesla, J. A., Young, J. F., & Mufson, L. (2007). Prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents: A randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal prevention programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5), 693–706. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.75.5.693.
Howe-Martin, L. S., Murrell, A. R., & Guarnaccia, C. A. (2012). Repetitive nonsuicidal self‐injury as experiential avoidance among a community sample of adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(7), 809–829.
Huang, K., Leong, F. T., & Wagner, N. S. (1994). Coping with peer stressors and associated dysphoria: Acculturation differences among Chinese-American children. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 7(1), 53–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515079408254134.
Hwang, W. C., & Ting, J. Y. (2008). Disaggregating the effects of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(2), 147–154. https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.14.2.147.
Izard, C. E. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventive interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 128(5), 796–824. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.796.
Jaycox, L. H., Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Walker, D. W., Langley, A. K., Gegenheimer, K. L., Scott, M., & Schonlau, M. (2010). Children’s mental health care following hurricane Katrina: A field trial of trauma-focused psychotherapies. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20518.
Jazaieri, H., McGonigal, K., Jinpa, T., Doty, J. R., Gross, J. J., & Goldin, P. R. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of compassion cultivation training: Effects on mindfulness, affect, and emotion regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-013-9368-z.
John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1301–1334.
Joyce, A., Etty-Leal, J., Zazryn, T., & Hamilton, A. (2010). Exploring a mindfulness meditation program on the mental health of upper primary children: A pilot study. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 3(2), 17–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/1754730X.2010.9715677.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York, NY: Hyperion.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016.
Keune, P. M., Bostanov, V., Hautzinger, M., & Kotchoubey, B. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), cognitive style, and the temporal dynamics of frontal EEG alpha asymmetry in recurrently depressed patients. Biological Psychology, 88(2), 243–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.08.008.
Kim, S. Y., & Chao, R. K. (2009). Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15(1), 27.
Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric Annals, 32(9), 509–515.
Kwon, H., Yoon, K. L., Joormann, J., & Kwon, J. H. (2013). Cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation: Relation to depression. Cognition and Emotion, 27(5), 769–782. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2013.792244.
Larsen R. J., & Prizmic Z. (2004). Affect regulation. In R. F. Baumeister RF, & K. D. Vohs (Eds), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 40–61). New York: Guilford Press.
Lau, A. S., Guo, S., Tsai, W., Nguyen, D. J., Nguyen, H. T., Ngo, V., & Weiss, B. (2016). Adolescents’ stigma attitudes toward internalizing and externalizing disorders: cultural influences and implications for distress manifestations. Clinical Psychological Science, 4(4), 704–717.
Luoma, J., & Hayes, S. C. (2003). Cognitive defusion. In W. T. Donohue, J. E. Fisher, & S. C. Hayes (Eds.), Empirically supported techniques for cognitive behavior therapy: A step-by-step guide for clinicians (pp. 71–78). New York: Wiley.
Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(4), 163–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.01.005.
Martinez, W., Polo, A. J., & Carter, J. S. (2012). Family orientation, language, and anxiety among low-income Latino youth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(4), 517–525.
McCarty, C. A., Violette, H. D., Duong, M. T., Cruz, R. A., & McCauley, E. (2013). A randomized trial of positive thoughts and action program for depression among early adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42(4), 554–563. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.782817.
McLaughlin, K. A., & Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). Mechanisms linking stressful life events and mental health problems in a prospective, community-based sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(2), 153–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.06.019.
Mennin, D., & Farach, F. (2007). Emotion and evolving treatments for adult psychopathology. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14(4), 329–352. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.2007.00094.x.
Merikangas, K. R., Nakamura, E. F., & Kessler, R. C. (2009). Epidemiology of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11(1), 7–20 Retrieved from https://www.dialogues-cns.org/.
Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., … & Swendsen, J. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980–989. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017.
Metz, S. M., Frank, J. L., Reibel, D., Cantrell, T., Sanders, R., & Broderick, P. C. (2013). The effectiveness of the learning to BREATHE program on adolescent emotion regulation. Research in Human Development, 10(3), 252–272. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2013.818488.
Michl, L. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Shepherd, K., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2013). Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: Longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(2), 339–352. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031994.
Newman, M. G., & Llera, S. J. (2011). A novel theory of experiential avoidance in generalized anxiety disorder: A review and synthesis of research supporting a contrast avoidance model of worry. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(3), 371–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2011.01.008.
Nguyen-Rodriguez, S. T., Chou, C. P., Unger, J. B., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2008). BMI as a moderator of perceived stress and emotional eating in adolescents. Eating Behaviors, 9(2), 238–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2007.09.001.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569.
Papadakis, A. A., Prince, R. P., Jones, N. P., & Strauman, T. J. (2006). Self-regulation, rumination, and vulnerability to depression in adolescent girls. Development and Psychopathology, 18(03), 815–829. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579406060408.
Pescosolido, B. A., Jensen, P. S., Martin, J. K., Perry, B. L., Olafsdottir, S., & Fettes, D. (2008). Public knowledge and assessment of child mental health problems: Findings from the National Stigma Study-Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(3), 339–349. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e318160e3a0.
Polo, A. J., & López, S. R. (2009). Culture, context, and the internalizing distress of Mexican American youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(2), 273–285. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410802698370.
Rosselló, J., Bernal, G., & Rivera-Medina, C. (2008). Individual and group CBT and IPT for Puerto Rican adolescents with depressive symptoms. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(3), 234–245. https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.14.3.234.
Schonert-Reichl, K., Oberle, E., Lawlor, M. S., Abbott, D., Thomson, K., Oberlander, T. F., & Diamond, A. (2015). Enhancing cognitive and social-emotional development through a simple-to-administer school program for elementary school children: A randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 51(1), 52–66. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038454.
Semple, R. J., Lee, J., Rosa, D., & Miller, L. F. (2010). A randomized trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children: Promoting mindful attention to enhance social-emotional resiliency in children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 218–229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-009-9301-y.
Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2003). Adolescents' emotion regulation in daily life: Links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Development, 74(6), 1869–1880. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00643.x.
Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S., Singh, J., Curtis, W. J., Wahler, R. G., & McAleavey, K. M. (2007). Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities. Behavior Modification, 31(6), 749–771. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445507300924.
Smyth, J. M. (1998). Written emotional expression: Effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 174–184. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.1.174.
So, K. T., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (2001). Three randomized experiments on the longitudinal effects of the transcendental meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence, 29(5), 419–440. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2896(01)00070-8.
Soto, J. A., Perez, C. R., Kim, Y. H., Lee, E. A., & Minnick, M. R. (2011). Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese. Emotion, 11(6), 1450–1455. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023340.
Stanton, A. L., Kirk, S. B., Cameron, C. L., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2000). Coping through emotional approach: Scale construction and validation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1150–1169. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1240.
Stanton, A. L., Parsa, A., & Austenfeld, J. L. (2002). The adaptive potential of coping through emotional approach. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 148–158). New York: Oxford University Press.
Stephan, S. H., Weist, M., Kataoka, S., Adelsheim, S., & Mills, C. (2007). Transformation of children's mental health services: The role of school mental health. Psychiatric Services, 58(10), 1330–1338. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2007.58.10.1330.
Stoep, A., Mccauley, E., Thompson, K. A., Herting, J. R., Kuo, E. S., Stewart, D. G., et al. (2005). Universal emotional health screening at the middle school transition. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 13(4), 213–223. https://doi.org/10.1177/10634266050130040301.
Su, J. C., Lee, R. M., Park, I. J., Soto, J. A., Chang, J., Zamboanga, B. L., et al. (2015). Differential links between expressive suppression and well-being among Chinese and Mexican American college students. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 6(1), 15–24. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036116.
Taylor‐Piliae, R. E., Haskell, W. L., Waters, C. M., & Froelicher, E. S. (2006). Change in perceived psychosocial status following a 12‐week Tai Chi exercise programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 54(3), 313–329.
Tsai, W., Nguyen, D. J., Weiss, B., Ngo, V., & Lau, A. S. (2017). Cultural differences in the reciprocal relations between emotion suppression coping, depressive symptoms and interpersonal functioning among adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(4), 657–669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0192-2.
Tull, M. T., Gratz, K. L., & Lacroce, D. M. (2006). The role of anxiety sensitivity and lack of emotional approach coping in depressive symptom severity among a non-clinical sample of uncued panickers. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 35(2), 74–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506070500466730033.
Verstraeten, K., Vasey, M. W., Raes, F., & Bijttebier, P. (2009). Temperament and risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence: Mediation by rumination and moderation by effortful control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(3), 349–361. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9293-x.
Waters, L., Barsky, A., Ridd, A., & Allen, K. (2015). Contemplative education: A systematic, evidence-based review of the effect of meditation interventions in schools. Educational Psychology Review, 27(1), 103–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-014-9258-2.
Wegner, D. M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101(1), 34–52. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.101.1.34.
Whelton, W. J. (2004). Emotional processes in psychotherapy: Evidence across therapeutic modalities. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 11, 58–71. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.392.
Yeh, M., McCabe, K., Lambros, K., Hough, R., Landsverk, J., Hurlburt, M., & Culver, S. (2005). Racial/ethnic representation across five public sectors of care for youth with EBD: Implications for students in school settings. In P. Clough et al. (Eds.), Handbook of emotional and behavioural difficulties (pp. 195–221). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Suveg, C. (2002). Anger and sadness regulation: Predictions to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(3), 393–398. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3103_11.
Zenner, C., Herrnleben-Kurz, S., & Walach, H. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions in schools—A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 603. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00603.
This study was funded by the Spencer Foundation (Grant #201600077; 2015–2017, $49,909 direct costs; PI: Joey Fung).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors attest that they have complied with ethical standards, including, but not limited to, oversight by the Institutional Review Board of the Fuller Theological Seminary and University of California, Los Angeles.
Informed assent was obtained by all study participants and informed consent was obtained by participant parents/guardians.
About this article
Cite this article
Fung, J., Kim, J.J., Jin, J. et al. A Randomized Trial Evaluating School-Based Mindfulness Intervention for Ethnic Minority Youth: Exploring Mediators and Moderators of Intervention Effects. J Abnorm Child Psychol 47, 1–19 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-0425-7
- School-based intervention
- Ethnic minority youth
- Emotion regulation