Executive Functions and Externalizing Symptoms: Common and Unique Associations



In discussing the four papers in this special issue, we provide our perspective on the authors’ contributions and suggest directions for future research. First, we highlight the usefulness of the bi-factor model for investigating relations among specific aspects of executive functions (EFs) and externalizing symptoms. Next, we examine the role of EFs as a protective factor that can moderate the relation between risk factors – specifically, callous-unemotional behaviors – on externalizing symptoms. And finally, we address the contributions of innovative measurement approaches to understanding the relations between EFs and externalizing symptoms, using the state-space grid methodology as an example.


Executive functions Externalizing symptoms Working memory Bi-factor model Callous-unemotional State space grid 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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