The Influence of Static and Dynamic Intrapersonal Factors on Longitudinal Patterns of Peer Victimization through Mid-adolescence: a Latent Transition Analysis
- 202 Downloads
Using 6 cycles (grade 5 through grade 10) of data obtained from a large prospective sample of Canadian school children (N = 700; 52.6% girls), we replicated previous findings concerning the empirical definition of peer victimization (i.e., being bullied) and examined static and dynamic intrapersonal factors associated with its emergence and experiential continuity through mid-adolescence. Latent class analyses consistently revealed a low victimization and an elevated victimization class across time, supporting previous work suggesting peer victimization was defined by degree rather than by type (e.g., physical). Using latent transition analyses (LTA), we found that child sex, parent-perceived pubertal development, and internalizing symptoms influenced the probability of transitioning from the low to the elevated victimization class across time. Higher-order extensions within the LTA modeling framework revealed a lasting effect of grade 5 victimization status on grade 10 victimization status and a large effect of chronic victimization on later parent-reported youth internalizing symptoms (net of prior parent-reported internalizing symptoms) in later adolescence (grade 11). Implications of the current findings for the experience of peer victimization, as well as the application of latent transition analysis as a useful approach for peer victimization research, are discussed.
KeywordsPeer victimization Bullying Development Latent transition analysis Longitudinal
We thank Heather Brittain, Amanda Krygsman, and Patricia McDougall for the help with the study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Collins, L. M., & Lanza, S. T. (2010). Latent class and latent transition analysis. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Craig, W., Pepler, D., Connolly, J., & Henderson, K. (2001). Developmental context of peer harassment in early adolescence: The role of puberty and the peer group. In J. Juvonen & S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in the school: The plight of the vulnerable and the victimized (pp. 242–262). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Cunningham, C. E., Pettingill, P., & Boyle. (2000). The Brief Child and Family Phone Interview (BCFPI). Hamilton: Canadian Centre for the study of Children at Risk, Hamilton Health Sciences Corporation, McMaster University.Google Scholar
- Dawkins, R. (2006). The Selfish Gene. 30 th (Anniversary ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, Inc..Google Scholar
- Graber, J. A., & Sontag, L. M. (2009). Internalizing problems during adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., pp. 642–682). Hoboken: Wiley & Sons, Inc..Google Scholar
- Hawker, D. S. J., & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 441–455. doi: 0.1111/1469-7610.00629.
- Herman, K. C., Wang, K., Trotter, R., Reinke, W. M., & Ialongo, N. (2013). Developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism among African American adolescents. Child Development, 84, 1633–1650. doi: 0.1111/cdev.12078.
- Kretschmer, T., Barker, E. D., Dijkstra, J. K., Oldehinkel, A. J., & Veenstra, R. (2015). Multifinality of peer victimization: Maladjustment patterns and transitions from early to mid-adolescence. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24, 1169–1179. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0667-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Krygsman, A. & Vaillancourt, T. (2017). Longitudinal associations between depression symptoms and peer experiences: Evidence of symptoms-driven pathways. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2017.05.003.
- Langeheine, R., & Van de Pol, F. (1994). Discrete-time mixed Markov latent class models. In A. Dale & R. B. Davies (Eds.), Analyzing social and political change: A casebook of methods (pp. 171–197). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Lereya, S., Samara, M., & Wolke, D. (2013). Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: A meta-analysis study. Child Abuse & Neglect. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.001.
- McDougall, P., & Vaillancourt, T. V. (2015). Long-term adult outcomes of peer victimization in childhood and adolescence: Pathways to adjustment and maladjustment. American Psychologist, 70, 300–310. doi: 0.1037/a0039174.
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus Users Guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094–2100. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nylund, K. (2007). Latent transition analysis: Modeling extensions and an application to peer victimization (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Los Angeles: University of California.Google Scholar
- Nylund, K., Muthén, B., Nishina, A., Bellmore, A., & Graham, S. (2007). Stability and instability of peer victimization during middle school: Using latent transition analysis with covariates, distal outcomes, and modeling extensions. Los Angeles: University of California, Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among school children: Basic facts and effects of a school-based intervention program. In D. Peppler & K. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression. Hillsdale: Lawrence Earlbaum.Google Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1993). Victimization by peers: Antecedents and long-term outcomes. In K. H. Rubin, J. B. Asendorpf, K. H. Rubin, & J. B. Asendorpf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition, and shyness in childhood (pp. 315–341). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1996). The revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Bergen: Research Center for Health Promotion (HEMIL Center), University of Bergen.Google Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1999). Sweden. In P.K. Smith, Y. Morita, J., Junger-Tas, D., Olweus, R. Catalano, and P. Slee (Eds.) The nature of school bullying: A cross-national perspective (pp. 2–27). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P., & Telch, M. J. (2010). Peer victimization and internalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 244–252. doi: 0.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.009.
- Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., Hessel, E. T., & Schmidt, J. D. (2011). A latent growth curve analysis of early and increasing peer victimization as predictors of mental health across elementary school. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40, 111–122. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2011.533413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sawyer, A. L., Bradshaw, C. P., & O’Brennan, L. M. (2008). Examining ethnic, gender, and developmental differences in the way children report being a victim of “bullying” on self-report measures. Journal of Adolescent Health, 43, 106–114. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.12.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vaillancourt, T., Brittain, H. L., McDougall, P., & Duku, E. (2013). Longitudinal links between childhood peer victimization, internalizing and externalizing problems, and academic functioning: Developmental cascades. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 1203–1215. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9781-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Velicer, W. F., Martin, R. A., & Collins, L. M. (1996). Latent transition analysis for longitudinal data. Addiction, 91 (Supplement), S197-S209. doi: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.91.12s1.10.x.
- Volk, A. A., Camilleri, J. A., Dane, A. V., & Marini, Z. (2012). Is adolescent bullying an evolutionary adaptation? Aggressive Behavior, 38, 222–238. doi: 0.1002/ab.21418.
- Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., Luk, J. W., & Nansel, T. R. (2010). Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: Physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 1103–1112. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsq048.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar