Self-Competence and Depressive Symptom Trajectories during Adolescence
- 176 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-competence and subsequent depressive symptom trajectories, by gender, in a community sample of adolescents (N = 753; 53% female; 65% non-Hispanic White). Data were collected annually for three years beginning when adolescents were in the 10th and 11th grades (Age: M = 16.09, SD = 0.72 years). Adolescents provided self-reports of self-competence at baseline and depressive symptoms every year. In latent growth curve models examining the overall trajectory of depressive symptoms, higher global self-worth and self-competence in close friendships were significantly associated with greater decreases in depressive symptoms (ps < 0.05). In contrast, higher academic self-competence was associated with more attenuated decreases in depressive symptoms (p = 0.001). When examining subgroups of latent depressive symptom trajectories within the context of growth mixture modeling, higher self-competence in physical appearance was associated with a decreased likelihood of membership in trajectory classes characterized by high initial, then decreasing depressive symptoms or and low initial, then increasing depressive symptoms (ps < 0.01). Among girls, higher global self-worth and self-competence in close friendship and academic domains were associated with membership in a trajectory class distinguished by high stable depressive symptoms (ps < 0.01); these associations were not observed among boys (ps > 0.05). Findings suggest that the competence-based model of depression is valid and applicable during middle-to-late adolescence, and emphasize the importance of considering gender and individual differences in the developmental course of depressive symptoms to gain a more nuanced understanding of the role of self-competence in depressive symptom trajectories.
KeywordsDepressive symptoms Adolescence Self-competence Self-worth Gender differences
We would like to thank all of the adolescents and parents who participated in this study. We would also like to acknowledge the Adolescent Adjustment Project staff for their unmatched dedication to the implementation and conduct of this study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health grant K01-AA015059 (PI: Ohannessian).
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Ethical Approval and Informed Consent
Ethical approval by the University of Delaware Institutional Review Board, and informed consent and adolescent informed assent were obtained.
- Bollen, K. A., & Curran, P. J. (2006). Latent curve models: A structural equation perspective. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Chaiton, M., Contreras, G., Brunet, J., Sabiston, C. M., O’Loughlin, E., Low, N. C., et al. (2013). Heterogeneity of depressive symptom trajectories through adolescence: Predicting outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(2), 96–105.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Fornari, V., & Dancyger, I. F. (2003). Psychosexual development and eating disorders. Adolescent Medicine Clinics, 14(1), 61–75.Google Scholar
- Hankin, B. L., Wetter, E., & Cheely, C. (2008). Sex differences in child and adolescent depression: A developmental psychopathological approach. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent depression (pp. 377–414). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hankin, B. L., Young, J. F., Abela, J. R., Smolen, A., Jenness, J. L., Gulley, L. D., et al. (2015). Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(4), 803–816.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Harter, S. (2012a). The construction of the self: Developmental and sociocultural foundations. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
- Harter, S. (2012b). Self-perception profile for adolescents: Manual and questionnaires. Denver: Univeristy of Denver, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
- Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., Costello, E. J., Georgiades, K., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., et al. (2012). Prevalence, persistence, and sociodemographic correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(4), 372–380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masten, A. S., Burt, K. B., & Coatsworth, J. D. (2006). Competence and psychopathology in development. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (Vol. 3, 2nd ed., pp. 696–738). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998-2015). Mplus User's guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthen & Muthen.Google Scholar
- Weis, M., Heikamp, T., & Trommsdorff, G. (2013). Gender differences in school achievement: The role of self-regulation. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(442), 1–10.Google Scholar
- Wickrama, K., Lee, T. K., O'Neail, C. W., & Lorenz, F. O. (2016). Higher-order growth curves and mixture modeling with Mplus. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar