Reciprocal Relations between the Trajectories of Mothers’ Harsh Discipline, Responsiveness and Aggression in Early Childhood

Article

Abstract

Theoretical advances in the study of the development of aggressive behaviors indicate that parenting behaviors and child aggression mutually influence one another. This study contributes to the body of empirical research in this area by examining the development of child aggression, maternal responsiveness, and maternal harsh discipline, using 5-year longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of Turkish children (n = 1009; 469 girls and 582 boys). Results indicated that: (i) maternal responsiveness and harsh discipline at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectory of aggression; (ii) reciprocally, aggressive behaviors at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectories of these two types of parenting behaviors; (iii) deviations from the linear trajectories of the child and mother behaviors tended to be short lived; and, (iv) the deviations of child behaviors from the linear trajectories were associated with the subsequent changes in mother behaviors after age 5. These findings are discussed in the cultural context of this study.

Keywords

Aggression Early childhood Harsh discipline Responsiveness Dual latent change score models 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by a grant from the Turkish Institute for Scientific and Technological Research (106 K347 and 109 K525) and received generous support from Koc University. Additional partial support for this study was received from Grand Challenges Canada (Grant 0072-03 to the Grantee, The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all adult participants of the study.

Supplementary material

10802_2017_280_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 17 kb)

References

  1. Akcinar, B., & Baydar, N. (2014). Parental control is not unconditionally detrimental for externalizing behaviors in early childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38, 118–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akcinar, B., & Baydar, N. (2016). Development of externalizing behaviors in the context of family and non-family relationships. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 1848–1859. doi:10.1007/s10826-016-0375016-0375-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison, P. D. (1990). Change scores as dependent variables in regression analysis. Sociological Methodology, 20, 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Barnes, J. C., Boutwell, B. B., Beaver, K. M., & Gibson, C. L. (2013). Analyzing the origins of childhood externalizing behavioral problems. Developmental Psychology, 49, 2272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Batum, P., & Yağmurlu, B. (2007). What counts in externalizing behaviors? The contributions of emotion and behavior regulation. Current Psychology: Developmental-Learning- Personality- Social, 25, 272–294.Google Scholar
  7. Baydar, N., & Akcinar, B. (2010). Middle childhood HOME-TR observation and interview scales. Unpublished Manuscript. Retrieved from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.
  8. Baydar, N., & Akcinar, B. (2015). Ramifications of socioeconomic differences for three year old children and their families in Turkey. Early Child Research Quarterly, 33, 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baydar, N., & Bekar, O. (2007). Early childhood HOME-TR observation and interview scales. Unpublished Manuscript. Retrieved from http://portal.ku.edu.tr/~ECDET/index.htm.
  10. Baydar, N., Küntay, A. C., Yagmurlu, B., Aydemir, N., Cankaya, D., Göksen, F., & Cemalcilar, Z. (2014). “it takes a village” to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berlin, L. J., Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Malone, P. S., Brooks-Gunn, J., Brady-Smith, C., et al. (2009). Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income white, African American, and Mexican American toddlers. Child Development, 80, 1403–1420.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Besnard, T., Verlaan, P., Davidson, M., Vitaro, F., Poulin, F., & Capuano, F. (2013). Bidirectional influences between maternal and paternal parenting and children's disruptive behaviour from kindergarten to grade 2. Early Child Development and Care, 183, 515–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradley, R. H., Corwyn, R. F., Burchinal, P., McAdoo, H. P., & Garcia-Coll, C. (2001). The home environments of children in the United States part I: variations by age, ethnicity, and poverty status. Child Development, 72, 1844–1867.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7, 55–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burns, G. L., & Patterson, D. R. (2000). Factor structure of the eyberg child behavior inventory: a parent rating scale of oppositional defiant behavior toward adults, inattentive behavior, and conduct problem behavior. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 569–577.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, S. B. (2002). Behavior problems in preschool children; Clinical and developmental issues (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Colvin, A., Eyberg, S. M., & Adams, C. D. (1999). Restandardization of the eyberg child behavior inventory. Retrieved from: www.pcit.org.
  18. Denham, S., Workman, E., Cole, P., Weissbrod, C., Kendziora, K., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2000). Prediction of externalizing behavior problems from early to middle childhood: the role of parental socialization and emotion expression. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 23–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dogan, S. J., Stockdale, G. D., Widaman, K. F., & Conger, R. D. (2010). Developmental relations and patterns of change between alcohol use and number of sexual partners from adolescence through adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1747.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Edwards, J. (2001). Ten difference score myths. Organizational Research Methods, 4, 265–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eyberg, S., & Robinson, E. A. (1983). Conduct problem behavior: standardization of a behavioral scale with adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 347–354.Google Scholar
  22. Farbiash, T., Berger, A., Atzaba-Poria, N., & Auerbach, J. G. (2014). Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 489–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Feng, X., Shaw, D. S., Kovacs, M., Lane, T., O'Rourke, F. E., & Alarcon, J. H. (2008). Emotion regulation in preschoolers: the roles of behavioral inhibition, maternal affective behavior, and maternal depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 132–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ferrer, E., & McArdle, J. (2003). Alternative structural models for multivariate longitudinal data analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 10, 493–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferrer, E., & McArdle, J. J. (2010). Longitudinal modeling of developmental changes in psychological research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(3), 149–154.Google Scholar
  26. Fite, P. J., Colder, C. R., Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2008). Developmental trajectories of proactive and reactive aggression from fifth to ninth grade. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 412–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gardner, F., Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., & Whitaker, C. (2010). Who benefits and how does it work? Moderators and mediators of outcome in an effectiveness trial of a parenting intervention. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 568–580.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gershoff, E. T., Lansford, J. E., Sexton, H. R., Davis-Kean, P., & Sameroff, A. J. (2012). Longitudinal links between spanking and children’s externalizing behaviors in a national sample of white, black, Hispanic, and Asian American families. Child Development, 83, 838–843.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Granic, I., & Patterson, G. R. (2006). Toward a comprehensive model of antisocial development: a dynamic systems approach. Psychological Review, 113, 101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gross, H. E., Shaw, D. S., Moilanen, K. L., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2008). Reciprocal models of child behavior and depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers in a sample of children at risk for early conduct problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 742.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations. Software of the mind (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  32. Kagitcibasi, C. (1996). Family and human development across cultures: a view from the other side. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc..Google Scholar
  33. Kagitcibasi, C., & Ataca, B. (2005). Value of children and family change: a three decade portrait from Turkey. Applied Psychology: International Review, 54, 317–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kouros, C. D., & Garber, J. (2010). Dynamic associations between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents’ depressive and externalizing symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 1069–1081.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., & Guttentag, C. (2008). A responsive parenting intervention: the optimal timing across early childhood for impacting maternal behaviors and child outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1335–1353.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee, S. J., Altschul, I., & Gershoff, E. T. (2013). Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood? Developmental Psychology, 49, 2017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. McArdle, J. J. (2009). Latent variable modeling of differences and changes with longitudinal data. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 577–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus User’s Guide (Seventh ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  39. OECD. (2010). Data by topic. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/social/soc/oecdfamilydatabase.htm.
  40. Paterson, G., & Sanson, A. (1999). The association of behavioral adjustment to temperament, parenting and family characteristics among 5-year-old children. Social Development, 8, 293–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene: Castalia.Google Scholar
  42. Prinzie, P., Onghena, P., & Hellinckx, W. (2006). A cohort-sequential multivariate latent growth curve analysis of normative CBCL aggressive and delinquent problem behavior: associations with harsh discipline and gender. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 444–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Prior, M., Sanson, A., & ve Oberklaid, F. (1989). The Australian temperament project. In G. A. Kohnstamm, J. E. Bates, & M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 537–556). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Reedtz, C., Bertelsen, B., Lurie, J. I. M., Handegård, B. H., Clifford, G., & Morch, W. T. (2008). Eyberg child behavior inventory (ECBI): Norwegian norms to identify conduct problems in children. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 31–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Reef, J., Diamantopoulou, S., van Meurs, I., Verhulst, F., & van der Ende, J. (2010). Predicting adult emotional and behavioral problems from externalizing problem trajectories in a 24-year longitudinal study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 577–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reid, M. J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Baydar, N. (2004). Halting the development of conduct problems in head start children: the effects of parent training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 279–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Serbin, L. A., Kingdon, D., Ruttle, P. L., & Stack, D. M. (2015). The impact of children's internalizing and externalizing problems on parenting: Transactional processes and reciprocal change over time. Development and Psychopathology, 27(4 pt1), 969–986.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Sheehan, M. J., & Watson, M. W. (2008). Reciprocal influences between maternal discipline techniques and aggression in children and adolescents. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 245–255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Shepard, S. A., & Dickstein, S. (2009). Preventive intervention for early childhood behavioral problems: an ecological perspective. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18, 687–706.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., Winter, C. C., & Patterson, G. R. (2014). Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 917–932.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Sunar, D., & Fisek, G. O. (2005). Contemporary Turkish families. In J. L. Roopnarine & U. P. Gielen (Eds.), Families in global perspective. Boston: Pearson Education Inc..Google Scholar
  52. Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: what have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Verhoeven, M., Junger, M., van Aken, C., Deković, M., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2010). Parenting and children's externalizing behavior: Bidirectionality during toddlerhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Villodas, M. T., Bagner, D. M., & Thompson, R. (2015). A step beyond maternal depression and child behavior problems: the role of mother–child aggression. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 16, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yağmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2009). The role of child temperament, parenting and culture in the development of prosocial behaviors. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61, 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentKoc UniversitySariyer IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Isik UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations