Skip to main content

Externalizing Outcomes of Youth with and without ADHD: Time-Varying Prediction by Parental ADHD and Mediated Effects

Abstract

Although parental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for multiple negative youth outcomes, it is unknown how change in parental ADHD symptoms over time affects change in child ADHD symptoms; moreover, mediators of these predictions are largely unknown. Parents of 230 5–10 year-old children (68 % male) with (n = 120) and without ADHD (n = 110) were followed prospectively for 6–7 years across three separate waves. Parents self-reported their ADHD and depression symptoms and similarly rated offspring ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms; youth self-reported their substance use. Temporally-ordered mediators consisted of parental expressed emotion (EE), derived from the Five Minute Speech Sample, and self-reported positive and negative parenting behavior. Controlling for key demographics and parental depression symptoms, increasing parental ADHD symptoms were a time-varying predictor of worsening youth ADHD and ODD, although it was unrelated to change in CD and alcohol/substance use. Next, although EE facets (i.e., criticism, emotional over-involvement) did not mediate these predictions, negative parenting behavior significantly mediated predictions of youth ADHD (and marginally in predictions of ODD) from parental ADHD symptoms. These quasi-experimental findings suggest that parental ADHD symptoms are a potential unique causal risk factor for offspring ADHD and ODD; also, preventing negative parenting behavior secondary to parental ADHD symptoms is critical to improve trajectories of youth ADHD and ODD. We consider parental ADHD symptoms and family factors underlying emergent externalizing problems utilizing a developmental psychopathology framework, including implications for intervention and prevention.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. Sample sizes for time-varying models ranged from n = 152 to 210, depending on the outcome. Mediational analyses were based on n = 129.

  2. With control of youth ODD, parental ADHD symptoms similarly predicted offspring ADHD symptoms.

References

  • Agha, S. S., Zammit, S., Thapar, A., & Langley, K. (2013). Are parental ADHD problems associated with a more severe clinical presentation and greater family adversity in children with ADHD? European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 369–377. doi:10.1007/s00787-013-0378-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barkley, R. A. (2003). Issues in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Brain and Development, 25, 77–83. doi:10.1016/S0387-7604(02)00152-3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory: twenty-five years later. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. (1996) Manual for the Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

  • Bjork, J. M., & Pardini, D. A. (2015). Who are those “risk-taking adolescents”? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 11, 56–64. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2014.07.008.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Burke, J. D., Pardini, D. A., & Loeber, R. (2008). Reciprocal relationships between parenting behavior and disruptive psychopathology from childhood through adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 679–692. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9219-7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Kipp, H. L., Baumann, B. L., & Lee, S. S. (2003). Psychopathology and substance abuse in parents of young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1424–1432. doi:10.1097/00004583-200312000-00009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Williams, S. H., Bauman, B. L., Kipp, H., Jones, H. A., & Rathouz, P. J. (2007). Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Psychology, 43, 70–82. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.70.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chronis-Tuscano, A., Raggi, V. L., Clarke, T. L., Rooney, M. E., Diaz, Y., & Pian, J. (2008). Associations between maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 1237–1250. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9246.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chronis-Tuscano, A., O’Brien, K. A., Johnston, C., Jones, H. A., Clarke, T. L., Raggi, V. L., et al. (2011). The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms & improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training is mediated by change in negative parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 1047–1057. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9518-2.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Daley, D., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., & Thompson, M. (2003). Assessing expressed emotion in mothers of preschool AD/HD children: psychometric properties of a modified speech sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 53–67. doi:10.1348/014466503762842011.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dandreaux, D. M., & Frick, P. J. (2009). Developmental pathways to conduct problems: a further test of the childhood and adolescent-onset distinction. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 375–385. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9261-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deater-Deckard, K., Sewell, M.D., Petrill, S.A., & Thompson, L.A. (2009). Maternal working memory and reactive negativity in parenting. Psychological Science, XX, 1–5. doi:10.1177/0956797609354073.

  • Dix, T. (1991). The affective organization of parenting: adaptive and maladaptive processes. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 3–25. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dodson, W. W. (2005). Pharmacotherapy of adult ADHD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5), 589–606. doi:10.1002/jclp.20122.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, B., & Nigg, J. (2009). Parenting practices and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: new findings suggest partial specificity of effects. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 146–154. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819176d0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ersoy, M. A., & Ersoy, H. T. (2015). Gender-role attitudes mediate the effects of adult ADHD on marriage and relationships. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi:10.1177/1087054715618789.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O’Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 129–140. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.11.001.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., & Mick, E. (2006). The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychological Medicine, 36, 159–165. doi:10.1017/S003329170500471X.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gross, H. E., Shaw, D. S., Moilanen, K. L., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2008). Reciprocal models of child behavior and depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers in a sample of children at risk for early conduct problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 742–751. doi:10.1037/a0013514.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hanley, J. A., Negassa, A., deBEdwardes, M. D., & Forrester, J. E. (2003). Statistical analysis of correlated data using generalized estimating equations: an orientation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 364–375. doi:10.1093/aje/kwf215.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hardin, J. W., & Hilbe, J. M. (2003). Generalized estimating equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/9780471462422.eoct485.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawes, D. J., & Dadds, M. R. (2006). Assessing parenting practices through parent-report and direct observation during parent-training. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 555–568. doi:10.1007/s10826-006-9029-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hill, J. C., & Schoener, E. P. (1996). Age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1143–1146.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Process, mechanism, and explanation related to externalizing behavior in developmental psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 431–446.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hinshaw, S. P., Lahey, B. B., & Hart, E. L. (1993). Issues of taxonomy and comorbidity in the development of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 31–49. doi:10.1017/S095479400004247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hinshaw, S. P., Owens, E. B., Wells, K. C., Kraemer, H. C., Abikoff, H. B., Arnold, E., Conners, C. K., & Wigal, T. (2000). Family processes and treatment outcome in the MTA: negative/ineffective parenting practices in relation to multimodal treatment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 555–568.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hooley, J.M., & Richters, J.E. (1995). Expressed emotion: a developmental perspective. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

  • Humphreys, K. L., Mehta, N., & Lee, S. S. (2012). Association of parental ADHD and depression with externalizing and internalizing dimensions of child psychopathology. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 267–275. doi:10.1177/1087054710387264.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jans, T., Jacob, C., Warnke, A., Zwanzger, U., Grob-Lesch, S., Matthies, S., & Philipsen, A. (2015). Does intensive multimodal treatment for maternal ADHD improve the efficacy of parent training for children with ADHD? A randomized controlled multicenter trial. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 56, 1298–1313. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12443.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jezior, K., McKenzie, M. E., & Lee, S. S. (2015). Narcissism and callous-unemotional traits prospectively predict child conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1–12. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.982280.

  • Johnston, C., Mash, E. J., Miller, N., & Ninowski, J. E. (2012). Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 215–228. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.01.007.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kamradt, J. M., Ullsperger, J. M., & Nikolas, M. A. (2014). Executive functioning assessment and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: tasks versus ratings on the Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale. Psychological Assessment, 26, 1095–1105. doi:10.1037/pas0000006.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kazdin, A. (2007). Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 1–27. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091432.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Ames, M., Demler, O., Faraone, S., Hiripi, E., & Walters, E. E. (2005). The World Health Organization adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 35, 245–256. doi:10.1017/S0033291704002892.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 716–723. doi:10.1176/ajp.2006.163.4.716.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kessler, R. C., Adler, L. A., Gruber, M. J., Sarawate, C. A., Spencer, T., & Van Brunt, D. L. (2007). Validity of the World Health Organization adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS) screener in a representative sample of health plan members. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16, 52–65. doi:10.1002/mpr.208.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kraemer, H. C., Kazdin, A. E., Offord, D. R., Kessler, R. C., Jensen, P. S., & Kupfer, D. J. (1997). Coming to terms with the terms of risk. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 337–343. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830160065009.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Burke, J., Rathouz, P. J., & McBurnett, K. (2002). Waxing and waning in concert: dynamic comorbidity of conduct disorder with other disruptive and emotional problems over 7 years among clinic-referred boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 556–567. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.111.4.556.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Loney, J., Kipp, H., Ehrhardt, A., Lee, S. S., & Massetti, G. (2004). Three-year predictive validity of DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children diagnosed at 4–6 years of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 2014–2020. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.11.2014.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, C., & Lamb, M. E. (2003). Fathers’ influences on children’s development: the evidence from two-parent families. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18, 211–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Farrington, D. P. (1989). Development of a new measure of self-reported antisocial behavior for young children: prevalence and reliability. Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-1001-0_10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., Hipwell, A., Battista, D., Sembower, M., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2009). Intergenerational transmission of multiple problem behaviors: prospective relationships between mothers and daughters. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 1035–1048. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9337-x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Luoma, I., Tamminen, T., Kaukonen, P., Laippala, P., Puura, K., Salmelin, R., & Almqvist, F. (2001). Longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms and child well-being. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1367–1374. doi:10.1097/00004583-200112000-00006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Mediation analysis. Wiley Online Library: The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. doi:10.1002/9781118625392.wbecp314.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1, 173–181.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Magaña, A. B., Goldstein, M. J., Karno, M., Miklowitz, D. J., Jenkins, J., & Falloon, I. R. H. (1986). A brief method for assessing expressed emotion in relatives of psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Research, 17, 203–212. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(86)90049-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Margari, F., Craig, F., Petruzzelli, M. G., Lamanna, A., Matera, E., & Margari, L. (2013). Parents psychopathology of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1036–1043.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mazursky-Horowitz, H., Felton, J. W., MacPherson, L., Ehrlich, K. B., Cassidy, J., Lejuez, C. W., & Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2015). Maternal emotion regulation mediates the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 121–131. doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9894-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McIntosh, D., Kutcher, S., Binder, C., Levitt, A., Fallu, A., & Rosenbluth, M. (2009). Adult ADHD and comorbid depression: a consensus-derived diagnostic algorithm for ADHD. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 5, 137–150.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Michielsen, M., Comijs, H. C., Aartsen, M. J., Semeijn, E. J., Beekman, A. T., Deeg, D. J., & Kooij, J. S. (2013). The relationships between ADHD and social functioning and participation in older adults in a population-based study. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi:1087054713515748.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Minde, K., Eakin, L., Hechtman, L., Ochs, E., Bouffard, R., Greenfield, B., & Looper, K. (2003). The psychosocial functioning of children and spouses of adults with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 637–646. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00150.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mostert, J. C., Hoogman, M., Onnink, A. M. H., van Rooij, D., von Rhein, D., van Hulzen, K. J. E., & Franke, B. (2015). Similar subgroups based on cognitive performance parse heterogeneity in adults with ADHD and healthy controls. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi:10.1177/1087054715602332.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Musser, E. D., Karalunas, S. L., Dieckmann, N., Peris, T. S., & Nigg, J. T. (2016). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder developmental trajectories related to parental expressed emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125, 182–195. doi:10.1037/abn0000097.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • National Comorbidity Survey. (2005). ASRS distribution scale in the general population information. Retrieved from http://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/asrs.php.

  • Odgers, C. L., Caspi, A., Nagin, D. S., Piquero, A. R., Slutske, W. S., Milne, B. J., Dickson, N., Poulton, R., & Moffitt, T. E. (2008). Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents? Psychological Science, 19, 1037–1044. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02196.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 210–218. doi:10.1097/00004583-199203000-00006.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peris, T. S., & Baker, B. L. (2000). Applications of the expressed emotion construct to young children with externalizing behavior: stability and prediction over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 457–462. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00630.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peris, T. S., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2003). Family dynamics and preadolescent girls with ADHD: the relationship between expressed emotion, ADHD symptomatology, and comorbid disruptive behavior. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1177–1190. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00199.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Prevatt, F. F. (2003). The contribution of parenting practices in a risk and resiliency model of children’s adjustment. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 469–480. doi:10.1348/026151003322535174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Psychogiou, L., Daley, D. M., Thompson, M. J., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2007). Mothers’ expressed emotion toward their school-aged sons. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 458–464. doi:10.1007/s00787-007-0619-y.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Psychogiou, L., Daley, D., Thompson, M., & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2010). Testing the interactive effect of parent and child ADHD on parenting in mothers and fathers: a further test of the similarity-fit hypothesis. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 419–433.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richards, J. S., Vasquez, A. A., Rommelse, N. N. J., Oosterlaan, J., Hoekstra, P. J., Franke, B., Hartman, C. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2014). A follow-up study of maternal expressed emotion toward children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): relation with severity and persistence of ADHD and comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 311–319. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruscio, J., & Ruscio, A. M. (2000). Informing the continuity controversy: a taxometric analysis of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 473–487. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.473.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (2012). Resilience as a dynamic concept. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 335–344. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000028.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

  • Shean, G., & Baldwin, G. (2008). Sensitivity and specificity of depression questionnaires in a college-age sample. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 169, 281–292. doi:10.3200/GNTP.169.3.281-292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shelton, K. K., Frick, P. J., & Wootton, J. (1996). Assessment of parenting practices in families of elementary school-age children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 317–329. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2503_B.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sitholey, P., Agarwal, V., & Tripathi, A. (2010). Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: one year follow up. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 131, 692–695.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Slade, T., & Andrews, G. (2005). Latent structure of depression in a community sample: a taxometric analysis. Psychological Medicine, 35, 489–497. doi:10.1017/S0033291704003708.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Solanto, M. V., Marks, D. J., Wasserstein, J., Mitchell, K., Abikoff, H., Alvir, J. M. J., & Kofman, M. D. (2010). Efficacy of meta-cognitive therapy for adult ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 958–968.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Cartwright, K. L., Thompson, M. J., Brown, J., Bitsakou, P., Daley, D., Gramzow, R. H., Psychogiou, L., & Simonoff, E. (2013). Family characteristics, expressed emotion, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 547–548. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.03.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thissen, A. J. A. M., Rommelse, N. N. J., Altink, M. E., Oosterlaan, J., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2014). Parent-of-origin effects in ADHD: distinct influences of paternal and maternal ADHD on neuropsychological functioning in offspring. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18, 521–531. doi:10.1177/1087054712443159.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Todd, R. D., Huang, H., Todorov, A. A., Neuman, R. J., Reiersen, A. M., Henderson, C. A., & Reich, W. C. (2008). Predictors of stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes from childhood to young adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 76–85. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e31815a6aca.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tung, I., Brammer, W. A., Li, J. J., & Lee, S. S. (2015). Parenting behavior mediates the intergenerational association of parent and child offspring ADHD symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 787–799. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.913250.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, C. H., Mazursky-Horowitz, H., & Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2014). Delivering evidence-based treatments for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of parental ADHD. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16, 474. doi:10.1007/s11920-014-0474-8.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Wiener, J., Biondic, D., Grimbos, T., & Herbert, M. (2016). Parenting stress of parents of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 561–574. doi:10.1007/s10802-015-0050-7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao, X., Lynch Jr., J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering baron and Kenny: myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 197–206. doi:10.1086/651257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Steve S. Lee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Moroney, E., Tung, I., Brammer, W.A. et al. Externalizing Outcomes of Youth with and without ADHD: Time-Varying Prediction by Parental ADHD and Mediated Effects. J Abnorm Child Psychol 45, 457–470 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0215-z

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0215-z

Keywords

  • Parental ADHD
  • Youth externalizing behavior
  • Family
  • Longitudinal