Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 611–623 | Cite as

Comparing the CASI-4R and the PGBI-10 M for Differentiating Bipolar Spectrum Disorders from Other Outpatient Diagnoses in Youth

  • Mian-Li Ong
  • Eric A. Youngstrom
  • Jesselyn Jia-Xin Chua
  • Tate F. Halverson
  • Sarah M. Horwitz
  • Amy Storfer-Isser
  • Thomas W. Frazier
  • Mary A. Fristad
  • L. Eugene Arnold
  • Mary L. Phillips
  • Boris Birmaher
  • Robert A. Kowatch
  • Robert L. Findling
  • the LAMS Group


We compared 2 rating scales with different manic symptom items on diagnostic accuracy for detecting pediatric bipolar spectrum disorder (BPSDs) in outpatient mental health clinics. Participants were 681 parents/guardians of eligible children (465 male, mean age = 9.34) who completed the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10-item Mania (PGBI-10 M) and mania subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Revised (CASI-4R). Diagnoses were based on KSADS interviews with parent and youth. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLRs) determined discriminative validity and provided clinical utility, respectively. Logistic regressions tested for incremental validity in the CASI-4R mania subscale and PGBI-10 M in predicting youth BPSD status above and beyond demographic and common diagnostic comorbidities. Both CASI-4R and PGBI-10 M scales significantly distinguished BPSD (N = 160) from other disorders (CASI-4R: Area under curve (AUC) = .80, p < 0.0005; PGBI-10 M: AUC = 0.79, p < 0.0005) even though scale items differed. Both scales performed equally well in differentiating BPSDs (Venkatraman test p > 0.05). Diagnostic likelihood ratios indicated low scores on either scale (CASI: 0–5; PGBI-10 M: 0–6) cut BPSD odds to 1/5 of those with high scores (CASI DLR- = 0.17; PGBI-10 M DLR- = 0.18). High scores on either scale (CASI: 14+; PGBI-10 M: 20+) increased BPSD odds about fourfold (CASI DLR+ = 4.53; PGBI-10 M DLR+ = 3.97). Logistic regressions indicated the CASI-4R mania subscale and PGBI-10 M each provided incremental validity in predicting youth BPSD status. The CASI-4R is at least as valid as the PGBI-10 M to help identify BPSDs, and can be considered as part of an assessment battery to screen for pediatric BPSDs.


Bipolar disorder Adolescents Assessment Receiver operating characteristic, diagnostic likelihood ratio CASI PGBI-10 M 


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This study was funded in part by National Institutes of Health (grant number NIH R01 MH073967; PI: R.L. Findling).

Conflict of Interest

Mian-Li Ong declares that he has no conflict of interest. Eric Youngstrom has consulted with Pearson, Western Psychological Services, Johnson & Johnson, Lundbeck and Otsuka about psychological assessment. Jesselyn Jia-Xin Chua declares that she has no conflict of interest. Tate Halverson declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sarah Horwitz declares that she has no conflict of interest. Amy Storfer-Isser declares that she has no conflict of interest. Thomas Frazier has received federal funding or research support from, acted as a consultant to, received travel support from, and/or received a speaker’s honorarium from the Cole Family Research Fund, Simons Foundation, Ingalls Foundation, Forest Laboratories, Ecoeos, IntegraGen, Kugona LLC, Shire Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, National Institutes of Health, and the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation. Mary Fristad receives royalties from American Psychiatric Press, CFPSI and Guilford Press and honoraria from American Occupational Therapy Association and Physicians’ Post-Graduate Press. Eugene Arnold has received research funding from Curemark, Forest, Lilly, Neuropharm, Novartis, Noven, Shire, and YoungLiving (as well as NIH and Autism Speaks) and has consulted with or been on advisory boards for Arbor, Gowlings, Neuropharm, Novartis, Noven, Organon, Otsuka, Pfizer, Roche, Seaside Therapeutics, Sigma Tau, Shire, Tris Pharma, and Waypoint and received travel support from Noven. Mary Phillips is a consultant for Roche Pharmaceuticals. Robert Kowatch declares that he has no conflict of interest. Robert Findling receives or has received research support, acted as a consultant and/or served on a speaker’s bureau for Alcobra, American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, American Physician Institute, American Psychiatric Press, AstraZeneca, Bracket, Bristol-Myers Squibb, CogCubed, Cognition Group, Coronado Biosciences, Dana Foundation, Elsevier, Forest, GlaxoSmithKline, Guilford Press, Johns Hopkins University Press, Johnson and Johnson, Jubilant Clinsys, KemPharm, Lilly, Lundbeck, Merck, NIH, Neurim, Novartis, Noven, Otsuka, Oxford University Press, Pfizer, Physicians Postgraduate Press, Purdue, Rhodes Pharmaceuticals, Roche, Sage, Shire, Sunovion, Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Transcept Pharmaceuticals, Validus, and WebMD.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mian-Li Ong
    • 1
  • Eric A. Youngstrom
    • 1
  • Jesselyn Jia-Xin Chua
    • 2
  • Tate F. Halverson
    • 1
  • Sarah M. Horwitz
    • 3
  • Amy Storfer-Isser
    • 4
  • Thomas W. Frazier
    • 5
  • Mary A. Fristad
    • 6
  • L. Eugene Arnold
    • 7
  • Mary L. Phillips
    • 8
  • Boris Birmaher
    • 8
  • Robert A. Kowatch
    • 9
  • Robert L. Findling
    • 10
  • the LAMS Group
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Statistical Research Consultants, LLCCharlotteUSA
  5. 5.Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  7. 7.Research Unit on Pediatric PsychopharmacologyOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  8. 8.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  9. 9.Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  10. 10.Department of Psychiatry, Kennedy Krieger InstituteJohn Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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