Maternal and Peer Regulation of Adolescent Emotion: Associations with Depressive Symptoms
Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents’ emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents’ positive and negative emotions, and mothers’ and peers’ supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers’ supportive regulation of adolescents’ emotions, and (2) peers’ supportive regulation of adolescents’ emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms.
KeywordsDyadic interactions Depression Adolescence Multilevel survival analysis Emotion regulation
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Grant 430-2011-0264 from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
This study was conducted in compliance with the requirements of the Institutional Research Ethics Boards, and informed consent/ assent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
- Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory manual (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Wyatt, T. (2007). In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), The socialization of emotional competence. London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Fogel, A. (1993). Developing through relationships: origins of communication, self, and culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Gottman, J. M., McCoy, K., Coan, J., & Collier, H. (1995). The specific affect coding system (SPAFF) for observing emotional communication in marital and family interaction. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Ha, T., Dishion, T. J., Overbeek, G., Burk, W. J., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2014). The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 551–562. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9808-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haines, B. A., Metalsky, G. I., Cardamone, A. L., & Joiner, T. (1999). Interpersonal and cognitive pathways into the origins of attributional style: a developmental perspective. In T. Joiner & J. C. Coyne (Eds.), The interactional nature of depression: advances in interpersonal approaches (pp. 65–92). Washington DC, US: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hankin, B. L., & Abela, J. R. (2005). Development of psychopathology: a vulnerability-stress perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Joiner, T., Coyne, J. C., & Blalock, J. (1999). On the interpersonal nature of depression: overview and synthesis. In T. Joiner & J. C. Coyne (Eds.), The interactional nature of depression: advances in interpersonal approaches (pp. 3–19). Washington DC, US: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Katz, L. F., Shortt, J. W., Allen, N. B., Davis, B., Hunter, E., Leve, C., & Sheeber, L. B. (2014). Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: enhancing and dampening positive affect. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 205–215. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9784-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K., & Garside, R. B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16, 326–342. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00387.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- La Greca, A. M., Davila, J., & Siegel, R. (2008). Peer relations, friendships, and romantic relationships: implications for the development and maintenance of depression in adolescents. In N. B. Allen & L. B. Sheeber (Eds.), Adolescent emotional development and the emergence of depressive disorders (pp. 318–336). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lamey, A. V., Hollenstein, T., Lewis, M. D., & Granic, I. (2004). GridWare (Version 1.1). Retrieved from http://statespacegrids.org.
- Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to depression. In R. M. Friedman & M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: contemporary theory and research (pp. 132–149). Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Lougheed, J. P., & Hollenstein, T. (2011). The co-regulation coding manual. Unpublished manual.Google Scholar
- McIsaac, C., Connolly, J., McKenney, K. S., Pepler, D., & Craig, W. (2008). Conflict negotiation and autonomy processes in adolescent romantic relationships: an observational study of interdependency in boyfriend and girlfriend effects. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 691–707. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.08.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mills, M. (2011). Introducing survival and event history analysis. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Mooney, C. Z., & Duval, R. (1993). Bootstrapping: a nonparametric approach to statistical inference. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide (version 7). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar