Comorbid Development of Disruptive Behaviors from age 1½ to 5 Years in a Population Birth-Cohort and Association with School Adjustment in First Grade
- 593 Downloads
Comorbidity is frequent among disruptive behaviors (DB) and leads to mental health problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, the early developmental origins of this comorbidity have so far received little attention. This study investigated the developmental comorbidity of three DB categories during early childhood: hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression. Joint developmental trajectories of DB were identified based on annual mother interviews from age 1½ to 5 years, in a population-representative birth-cohort (N = 2045). A significant proportion of children (13 % to 21 %, depending on the type of DB) consistently displayed high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, or physical aggression from age 1½ to 5 years. Developmental comorbidity was frequent, especially for boys: 10 % of boys and 3.7 % of girls were on a stable trajectory with high levels of symptoms for the three categories of DB. Significant associations were observed between preschool joint-trajectories of DB and indicators of DB and school adjustment assessed by teachers in first grade. Preschoolers who maintained high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression, displayed the highest number of DB symptoms in first grade for all categories according to their teacher. They were also among the most disadvantaged of their class for school adjustment indicators. Thus, DB manifestations and developmental comorbidity of DB are highly prevalent in infancy. Early childhood appears to be a critical period to prevent persistent and comorbid DB that leads to impairment at the very beginning of school attendance and to long-term serious health and social adjustment problems.
KeywordsDisruptive behaviors Trajectories Comorbidity Preschool years School entry
We thank the Quebec Government Ministry of Health, the Fond Quebecois de la Recherche sur la Societe et la Culture, Canada’s Social Science and Humanities Research Council, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research St.-Justine Hospital’s Research Center, and the University of Montreal for financial support. Michel Boivin is supported by the Canada Research Chair Program.
We thank the families and teachers of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) for their collaboration to this project; for data collection and management; Xuecheng Liu, Ph.D., for statistical expertise; as well as the Quebec Institute of Statistics, Mireille Jetté, and the staff of the Research Unit on Children’s Psychosocial Maladjustment for data collection and management.
Integrity of Research and Reporting
Informed consent has been appropriately obtained and Institutional Review Board of the University of Montreal provided ethical approval. Therefore this study has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Achenbach, T. M. (1992). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/2–3 and 1992 Profile. Burlington:University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
- Basten, M., Tiemeier, H., Althoff, R. R., Van de Schoot, R., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Hofman, A., et al. (2015). The stability of problem behavior across the preschool years: an empirical approach in the general population. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Advance Online publication. doi:. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-9993-y.Google Scholar
- Bendiksen, B., Aase, H., Svensson, E., Friis, S., Myhre, A. M., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T., et al. (2014). Impairment in young preschool children with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, 2, 95–105.Google Scholar
- Brown, J. D. (1996). Testing in language programs. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for behavioral sciences (revised ed., ). New York:Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Dougherty, L. R., Smith, V. C., Bufferd, S. J., Stringaris, A., Leibenluft, E., Carlson, G. A., & Klein, D. N. (2013). Preschool irritability: longitudinal associations with psychiatric disorders at age 6 and parental psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 1304–1313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jetté, M., & Des Groseillers, L. (2000a). Survey Description and Methodology. In: Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (ELDEQ 1998-2002) (Vol. 1, No. 1). Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: Institut de la statistique du Québec.Google Scholar
- Jetté, M.,& Des Groseillers, L. (2000b). Family, Child care, and Neighbourhood Characteristics. In: Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (ELDEQ 1998-2002) (Vol. 1, No. 2). Quebec City, Quebec, Canada: Institut de la statistique du Québec.Google Scholar
- Lahey, B. B., McBurnett, K., & Loeber, R. (2000). Are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder developmental precursors to conduct disorder? In a. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 431–446 (2nd ed., ). New York:Plenum.Google Scholar
- Lavigne, J. V., Cicchetti, C., Gibbons, R. D., Binns, H. J., Larsen, L., & DeVito, C. (2001). Oppositional defiant disorder with onset in preschool years: longitudinal stability and pathways to other disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1393–1400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leblanc, N., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E., et al. (2008). The development of hyperactive–impulsive behaviors during the preschool years: the predictive validity of parental assessments. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 977–987.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lemelin, J. P., & Boivin, M. (2007). In Success starts in Grade 1: The importance of school readiness”. In: Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD 1998-2010) (vol. Vol. 4, Fascicle 2). Quebec: Institut de la statistique du Quebec.Google Scholar
- Early Child Care Research Network, N. I. C. H. D. (2004). Trajectories of physical aggression from toddlerhood to middle school. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Serial No., 278.Google Scholar
- Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed., ). New York:McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Statistics Canada and Human Resources Development Canada. (1995). National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth: Survey Instruments for 1994–1995 Data Collection Cycle 1. Ottawa,: Statistics Canada and Human Resources Development Canada.Google Scholar
- Wolf, F. M. (1986). Meta-analysis: Quantitative Methods for Research Synthesis. Beverly Hills, CA:Sage.Google Scholar