Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 297–309 | Cite as

Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in School Children: A Cross-Sex and Ethnic Examination

  • Lindsay E. Holly
  • Michelle Little
  • Armando A. Pina
  • Linda C. Caterino


We evaluated the cross-sex and -ethnic (Hispanic/Latino, non-Hispanic White) measurement invariance of anxiety symptoms based on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) as well as SCAS anxiety symptoms’ correspondence with scores on the 5-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and teacher ratings of child anxiety. Based on data corresponding to 702 children (M age = 9.65, SD = 0.70; 51.9 % girls; 55 % Hispanic/Latino), findings showed some sex and ethnic variations in SCAS measured anxiety at the item and scale levels. Moreover, SCAS correspondence to the 5-item SCARED was found across ethnicity and sex. SCAS correspondence to teacher ratings was found for non-Hispanic White boys and non-Hispanic White girls, marginally in Hispanic/Latino boys, and poorly in Hispanic/Latino girls.


Hispanic/Latino Child anxiety symptoms Spence children’s anxiety scale Screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders Teacher ratings School assessment 



This work was supported in part by grant number K01MH086687 awarded to A. Pina as well as a prevention science fellowship awarded to L. Holly, T32 MH018387 27 from the National Institute of Mental Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent the official views of the funding agency. We would like to thank the schools that participated in the current research project: Harris Elementary School and Superstition Elementary School (Gilbert School District); Brisas Elementary School and Estrella Elementary School (Kyrene School District); Rose Linda Elementary School and Valley View Elementary School (Roosevelt School District); Pueblo Elementary School, Tonalea Elementary School, and Yavapai Elementary School (Scottsdale Unified School District).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Albano, A. M., & Krain, A. (2005). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in girls. In D. J. Bell, S. L. Foster, & E. J. Mash (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral and emotional problems in girls (pp. 79–116). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arizona Anxiety Resilience Building Project. (2011). Brief Teacher Rating Scale. Unpublished instrument.Google Scholar
  4. Asparouhov, T., Muthén, L. & Muthén, B.O. (2006). Robust chi square difference testing with mean and variance adjusted test statistics. Retrieved from
  5. Barrett, P., & Turner, C. (2001). Prevention of anxiety symptoms in primary school children: Preliminary results from a universal school-based trial. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 399–410. doi: 10.1348/014466501163887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrett, P., Lock, S., & Farrell, L. J. (2005). Developmental differences in universal preventive intervention for child anxiety. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 10, 539–555. doi: 10.1177/1359104505056317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, P., Farrell, L. J., Ollendick, T. H., & Dadds, M. (2006). Long-term outcomes of an Australian universal prevention trial of anxiety and depression symptoms in children and youth: An evaluation of the friends program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 403–411. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3503_5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (1995). A new inventory to assess childhood social anxiety and phobia: The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Psychological Assessment, 7, 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S., Brent, D., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J., & Neer, S. M. (1997). The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): Scale construction and psychometric characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 545–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Chiappetta, L., Bridge, J., Monga, S., & Baugher, M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): A replication study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1230–1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, T. (2006). CFA with equality constraints, multiple groups, and mean structures. In Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (pp. 236–319). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthén, B. (1989). Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 456–466. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell, M. A. (2004). Identification of “at-risk” students for prevention and early intervention programs in secondary schools. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 14, 65–77.Google Scholar
  14. Capps, R., Fix, M., Ost, J., Reardon-Anderson, J., & Passel, J. S. (2005). The health and well-being of young children of immigrants. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  15. Carter, R., Silverman, W. K., & Jaccard, J. (2011). Sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms: Effects of pubertal development and gender role orientation. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40, 730–741. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2011.597082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255. doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00130-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.122.1.5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dadds, M. R., Spence, S. H., Holland, D. E., Barrett, P. M., & Laurens, K. R. (1997). Prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 627–635. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.65.4.627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Los Reyes, A., & Kazdin, A. E. (2005). Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psychopathology: A critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendations for further study. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 483–509. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.4.483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Los Reyes, A., Thomas, S. A., Goodman, K. L., & Kundey, S. M. (2013). Principles underlying the use of multiple informants’ reports. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 123–149. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185617.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DiNardo, P. A., Barlow, D. H., & Barlow, D. H. (1988). Anxiety disorders interview schedule-revised (ADIS-R). Albany: Phobia and Anxiety Disorders Clinic, State University of New York.Google Scholar
  23. Duchesne, S., Vitaro, F., Larose, S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2008). Trajectories of anxiety during elementary-school years and the prediction of high school noncompletion. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 1134–1146. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9224-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ebesutani, C., Reise, S. P., Chorpita, B. F., Ale, C., Regan, J., Young, J., & Weisz, J. R. (2012). The revised child anxiety and depression scale-short version: Scale reduction via exploratory bifactor modeling of the broad anxiety factor. Psychological Assessment, 24, 833–845. doi: 10.1037/a0027283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Essau, C. A., Conradt, J., Sasagawa, S., & Ollendick, T. H. (2012). Prevention of anxiety symptoms in children: Results from a universal school-based trial. Behavior Therapy, 43, 450–464. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2011.08.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flora, D. B., & Curran, P. J. (2004). An empirical evaluation of alternative methods of estimation for confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data. Psychological Methods, 9, 466–491. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.9.4.466.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ghorpade, J., Hattrup, K., & Lackritz, J. R. (1999). The use of personality measures in cross-cultural research: A test of three personality scales across two countries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 670–679. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.84.5.670.mi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ginsburg, G. S., & Silverman, W. K. (1996). Phobic and anxiety disorders in Hispanic and Caucasian youth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 10, 517–528. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(96)00027-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grover, R. L., Ginsburg, G. S., & Ialongo, N. (2007). Psychosocial outcomes of anxious first graders: A seven‐year follow‐up. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 410–420. doi: 10.1002/da.20241.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hing, J. (2012, July 19). Does Arpaio racially profile? A federal court will decide. Color Lines: News from Action. Retrieved from
  31. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to under parameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424–453. doi:1082-989X/98/J3.00.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hui, C. H., & Triandis, H. C. (1989). Effects of culture and response format on extreme response style. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 20, 296–309. doi: 10.1177/0022022189203004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq. (2004).Google Scholar
  34. Institute of Medicine. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among youth people: Progress and possibilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  35. Israel, A. C., Becker, R. E., & Neilans, T. H. (1977). Contribution of pretesting to several measures of semantic desensitization effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 1197–1198. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.45.6.1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kearney, C. A. (2008). School absenteeism and school refusal behavior in youth: A contemporary review. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 451–471. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.07.012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kendall, P. C., & Ollendick, T. H. (2004). Setting the research and practice agenda for anxiety in children and adolescence: A topic comes of age. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 11, 65–74. doi: 10.1016/S1077-7229(04)80008-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Knight, G. P., Roosa, M. W., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2009). Methodological challenges in studying ethnic minority or economically disadvantaged populations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Knight, G. P., Gonzales, N. A., Saenz, D. S., Bonds, D. D., German, M., Deardorff, J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2010). The Mexican American cultural values scales for adolescents and adults. Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 444–481. doi: 10.1177/0272431609338178.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s Depression Inventory. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  41. Labouvie, E., & Ruetsch, C. (1995). Testing for equivalence of measurement scales: Simple structure and metric invariance reconsidered. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30, 63–76. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3001_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lewinsohn, P. M., Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, M., Seeley, J. R., & Allen, N. B. (1998). Gender differences in anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 107, 109–117. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.107.1.109.Google Scholar
  43. March, J. S., Parker, J. D. A., Sullivan, K., Stallings, P., & Conners, K. (1997). The multi-dimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): Factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 554–565. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199704000-00019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marin, G., Gamba, R. J., & Marin, B. V. (1992). Extreme response style and acquiescence among Hispanics: The role of acculturation and education. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 23, 498–509. doi: 10.1177/0022022192234006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mash, E. J., & Hunsley, J. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of child and adolescent disorders: Issues and challenges. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 34, 362–379. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mash, E. J., & Terdal, L. G. (Eds.). (1997). Assessment of childhood disorders (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. McLeod, B. D., Jensen-Doss, A., & Ollendick, T. H. (Eds.). (2013). Diagnostic and behavioral assessment in children and adolescents: A clinical guide. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Meade, A. W., Johnson, E. C., & Braddy, P. W. (2008). Power and sensitivity of alternative fit indices in tests of measurement invariance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 568–592. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Millsap, R. E. (2007). Invariance in measurement and prediction revisited. Psychometrika, 72, 461–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Millsap, R. E. (2010). Testing measurement invariance using item response theory in longitudinal data: An introduction. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 5–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00109.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Millsap, R. E. (2011). Statistical approaches to measurement invariance. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Millsap, R. E., & Tein, J. (2004). Assessing factorial invariance in ordered-categorical measures. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 479–515. doi: 10.1207/S15327906MBR3903_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Ollendick, T., King, N., & Bogie, N. (2002). Three traditional and three new childhood anxiety questionnaires: Their reliability and validity in a normal adolescent sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 753–772. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00056-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Knoops, M. (2005). The relation between gender role orientation and fear and anxiety in nonclinic-referred children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 326–332. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3402_12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2011). Mplus User’s Guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  56. Neil, A. L., & Christensen, H. (2009). Efficacy and effectiveness of school-based prevention and early intervention programs for anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 208–215. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107–110, § 115, Stat. 1425 (2002).Google Scholar
  58. Ollendick, T. H. (1983). Reliability and validity of the revised fear survey schedule for children (FSSC–R). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 685–962. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(83)90087-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Perrin, S., & Last, C. G. (1992). Do childhood anxiety measures measure anxiety? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 567–578. doi: 10.1007/BF00911241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pina, A. A., & Silverman, W. K. (2004). Clinical phenomenology, somatic symptoms, and distress in Hispanic/Latino and European American youths with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 227–236. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pina, A. A., Little, M., Knight, G. P., & Silverman, W. K. (2009). Cross-ethnic measurement equivalence of the RCMAS in Latino and White youth with anxiety disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 58–61. doi: 10.1080/00223890802484183.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pina, A. A., Gonzales, N., Holly, L. E., Zerr, A., & Wynne, H. (2013a). Toward evidence-based assessment of ethnic minority youth. In B. D. McLeod, A. Jensen-Doss, & T. Ollendick (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent diagnostic and behavioral assessment (pp. 348–376). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  63. Pina, A.A., Little, M., Wynne, H., & Beidel, D.C. (2013b). Assessing social anxiety in African American youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, doi:  10.1007/s10802-013-9775-3
  64. President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education. (2002). A New Era: Revitalizing Special Education for Children and Their Families. Washington, DC. Retrieved from
  65. Raykov, T. (2004). Behavioral scale reliability and measurement invariance evaluation using latent variable modeling. Behavior Therapy, 35, 299–331. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80041-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reynolds, C., & Richmond, B. (1978). “What I think and feel”: A revised measure of children’s manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 271–280. doi: 10.1007/BF00919131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rudolph, K. D., & Conley, C. S. (2005). The socioemotional costs and benefits of social‐evaluative concerns: Do girls care too much? Journal of Personality, 73, 115–138. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00306.x.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Santos, F. (2013, May 25). Judge finds violations of rights by sheriff. The New York Times, pp. A14.Google Scholar
  69. Santos, C. E., & Menjívar, C. (2013). Youths’ perspective on Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona: The socio-emotional effects of immigration policy. Association of Mexican American Educators Journal, 7(2), 7–17.Google Scholar
  70. Santos, C., Menjívar, C., & Godfrey, E. (2013). Effects of SB 1070 on children. In L. Magaña & E. Lee (Eds.), Latino politics and Arizona’s immigration law SB 1070 (pp. 79–92). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sass, D. A., Schmitt, T. A., & Marsh, H. W. (2014). Evaluating model fit with ordered categorical data within a measurement invariance framework: A comparison of estimators. Structural Equation Modeling, 21, 167–180. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2014.882658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996). Anxiety disorders interview schedule for children. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  73. Silverman, W. K., & Carter, R. (2006). Anxiety disturbance in girls and women. In J. Worell & C. D. Goodheart (Eds.), Handbook of girls’ and women’s psychological health: Gender and well-being across the lifespan (pp. 60–68). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Silverman, W. K., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of anxiety and its disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 380–411. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Silverman, W. K., Saavedra, L. M., & Pina, A. A. (2001). Test-retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with the anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: Child and parent versions. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 937–944. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200108000-00016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Spence, S. H. (1997). Structure of anxiety symptoms among children: A confirmatory factor-analytic study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(2), 280–297. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.106.2.280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Spence, S. H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 545–566. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00034-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Spence, S.H. (2008). Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale: Norms for Total Scores. Retrieved from
  79. Spence, S. H., Barrett, P. M., & Turner, C. M. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Spence children’s anxiety scale with young adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 605–625. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00236-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trent, L. R., Buchanan, E., Ebesutani, C., Ale, C. M., Heiden, L., Hight, T. L., Damon, J. D., & Young, J. (2013). A measurement invariance examination of the revised child anxiety and depression scale in a southern sample: Differential item functioning between African American and Caucasian youth. Assessment, 20, 175–187. doi: 10.1177/1073191112450907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–69. doi: 10.1177/109442810031002. DOI:10.1177%2F109442810031002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Varela, R. E., Vernberg, E. M., Sanchez-Sosa, J. J., Riveros, A., Mitchell, M., & Mashunkashey, J. (2004). Parenting style of Mexican, Mexican American, and Caucasian-Non-Hispanic families: Social context and cultural influences. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 651–657. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.18.4.651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Varela, R. E., Weems, C. F., Berman, S. L., Hensley, L., & de Bernal, M. C. R. (2007). Internalizing symptoms in Latinos: The role of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 429–440. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9168-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Varela, R. E., Sanchez-Sosa, J. J., Biggs, B. K., & Luis, T. M. (2008). Anxiety symptoms and fears in Hispanic and European American children: Cross-cultural measurement equivalence. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 130–142. doi: 10.1007/s10862-007-9056-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Warren, S. L., & Sroufe, L. A. (2004). Developmental issues. In T. H. Ollendick & J. S. March (Eds.), Phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A clinician’s guide to effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions (pp. 92–115). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Weems, C. F., & Stickle, T. R. (2005). Anxiety disorders in childhood: Casting a nomological net. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 107–134. doi: 10.1007/s10567-005-4751-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Westenberg, P. M., Siebelink, B. M., & Treffers, P. D. A. (2001). Psychosocial developmental theory in relation to anxiety and its disorders. In W. K. Silverman & P. D. A. Treffers (Eds.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Research, assessment and intervention (pp. 72–89). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Widaman, K. F., & Reise, S. P. (1997). Exploring the measurement invariance of psychological instruments: Applications in the substance abuse domain. In K. J. Bryant (Ed.), Alcohol and substance abuse research (pp. 281–324). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wolf, E. J., Harrington, K. M., Clark, S. L., & Miller, M. W. (2013). Sample size requirements for structural equation models: An evaluation of power, bias, and solution propriety. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73, 913–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yoshikawa, H., & Kalil, A. (2011). The effects of parental undocumented status on the developmental contexts of young children in immigrant families. Child Development Perspectives, 5, 291–297. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00204.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lindsay E. Holly
    • 1
  • Michelle Little
    • 2
  • Armando A. Pina
    • 1
  • Linda C. Caterino
    • 3
  1. 1.Prevention Research Center, Department of PsychologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.Psychology DepartmentUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Mary Lou Fulton Teachers CollegeArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations