Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Socioeconomic Status and Child Mental Health: The Role of Parental Emotional Well-Being and Parenting Practices

  • Published:
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Barth, R. P., Landsverk, J., Chamberlain, P., Reid, J. B., Rolls, J. A., Hurlburt, M. S., et al. (2005). Parent-training programs in child welfare services: planning for a more evidence-based approach to serving biological parents. Research on Social Work Practice, 15, 353–371. doi:10.1177/1049731505276321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benasich, A. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1996). Maternal attitudes and knowledge of child-rearing: associations with family and child outcomes. Child Development, 67, 1186–1205.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Benner, A. D., & Kim, S. Y. (2010). Understanding Chinese American adolescents’ developmental outcomes: insights from the family stress model. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20, 1–12. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00629.x.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bitensky, S. H. (1997). Spare the rod, embrace our humanity: toward a new legal regime prohibiting corporal punishment of children. University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, 31, 353–474.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blair, S., Wenk, D., & Hardesty, C. (1994). Marital quality and paternal involvement: interconnections of men’s spousal and parental roles. Journal of Men’s Studies, 2, 221–237. doi:10.3149/jms.0203.221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271–301. doi:10.1017/S0954579405050145.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371–399.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bøe, T., Øverland, S., Lundervold, A. J., & Hysing, M. (2012). Socioeconomic status and children’s mental health: results from the Bergen child study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47, 1557–1566. doi:10.1007/s00127-011-0462-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, S. B., Pierce, E. W., March, C. L., & Ewing, L. J. (1991). Noncompliant behavior, overactivity, and family stress as predictors of negative maternal control with preschool children. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 175–190. doi:10.1017/S0954579400000067.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castillo, J., Welch, G., & Sarver, C. (2011). Fathering: the relationship between fathers’ residence, fathers’ sociodemographic characteristics, and father involvement. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15, 1342–1349. doi:10.1007/s10995-010-0684-6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558–577. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.558.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Colonnesi, C., Draijer, E. M., Jan, J. M., Stams, G., Van der Bruggen, C. O., Bögels, S. M., et al. (2011). The relation between insecure attachment and child anxiety: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40, 630–645. doi:10.1080/15374416.2011.581623.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. (1994). Families in troubled times: Adapting to change in in rural America (1st ed.). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Jr., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys. Child Development, 63, 526–541.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Jr., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65, 541–561.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Conger, R. D., Patterson, G. R., & Ge, X. (1995). It takes two to replicate: a mediational model for the impact of parents’ stress on adolescent adjustment. Child Development, 66, 80–97.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., & Martin, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status, family processes, and individual development. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 685–704. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00725.x.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Costello, E. J., Compton, S. N., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: a natural experiment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 2023–2029. doi:10.1001/jama.290.15.2023.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dearing, E., McCartney, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2006). Within-child associations between family income and externalizing and internalizing problems. Developmental Psychology, 42, 237–252. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.2.237.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: an integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 50–76. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.108.1.50.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2003). Off with hollingshead: Socioeconomic resources, parenting, and child development. In M. H. Bornstein & R. H. Bradley (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elder, G. H., Jr., & Caspi, A. (1988). Economic-stress in lives—developmental perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 25–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elder, G. H., Jr., Nguyen, T. V., & Caspi, A. (1985). Linking family hardship to children’s lives. Child Development, 56, 361–375.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Evans, G. W. (2003). A multimethodological analysis of cumulative risk and allostatic load among rural children. Developmental Psychology, 39, 924–933.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Feng, X., Shaw, D. S., & Silk, J. S. (2008). Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms among boys across early and middle childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 32–47. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.117.1.32.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, T., Goodman, R., & Meltzer, H. (2003). The British child and adolescent mental health survey 1999: the prevalence of dsm-iv disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1203–1211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ge, X. J., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Parents stressful life events and adolescent depressed mood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 28–44.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gershoff, E. T., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Zelli, A., Deater-Deckard, K., et al. (2010). Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness. Child Development, 81, 487–502. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01409.x.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38, 581–586. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, R. (1999). The extended version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a guide to child psychiatric caseness and consequent burden. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 40, 791–799.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, S., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: a developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, R., Ford, T., Richards, H., Gatward, R., & Meltzer, H. (2000a). The development and well-being assessment: description and initial validation of an integrated assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 41, 645–655.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, R., Ford, T., Simmons, H., Gatward, R., & Meltzer, H. (2000b). Using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (sdq) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 534–539. doi:10.1192/bjp.177.6.534.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, A., Lamping, D. L., & Ploubidis, G. B. (2010). When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (sdq): data from British parents, teachers and children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 1179–1191. doi:10.1007/s10802-010-9434-x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Heiervang, E., & Goodman, R. (2011). Advantages and limitations of web-based surveys: evidence from a child mental health survey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46, 69–76. doi:10.1007/s00127-009-0171-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Heiervang, E., Stormark, K. M., Lundervold, A. J., Heimann, M., Goodman, R., Posserud, M.-B., et al. (2007). Psychiatric disorders in norwegian 8- to 10-year-olds: an epidemiological survey of prevalence, risk factors, and service use. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 438–447. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e31803062bf.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hoff, E., Laursen, B., & Tardif, T. (2002). Socioeconomic status and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Biology and ecology of parenting (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 231–252). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling-A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, K. Y., Caughy, M. O. B., Genevro, J. L., & Miller, T. L. (2005). Maternal knowledge of child development and quality of parenting among white, African-American and Hispanic mothers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 149–170. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2004.12.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huisman, M., Araya, R., Lawlor, D. A., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F. C., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2010). Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: findings from two european cohort studies. European Journal of Epidemiology, 25, 569–580. doi:10.1007/s10654-010-9473-1.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jöreskog, K. G. (1993). Testing structural equation models. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 294–316). Newbury Park: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keiley, M. K., Howe, T. R., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2001). The timing of child physical maltreatment: a cross-domain growth analysis of impact on adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 891–912.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, K. J., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2001). Parent-adolescent reciprocity in negative affect and its relation to early adult social development. Developmental Psychology, 37, 775–790.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Korbin, J. E. (2003). Children, childhoods, and violence. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 431–446. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.32.061002.093345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Oburu, P., Palmerus, K., et al. (2005). Physical discipline and children’s adjustment: cultural normativeness as a moderator. Child Development, 76, 1234–1246. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00847.x.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Last, A., Miles, R., Wills, L., Brownhill, L., & Ford, T. (2012). Reliability and sensitivity to change of the family life questionnaire in a clinical population. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17, 121–125. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2011.00621.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leinonen, J. A., Solantaus, T. S., & Punamaki, R. L. (2002). The specific mediating paths between economic hardship and the quality of parenting. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 423–435. doi:10.1080/01650250143000364.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lempers, J. D., Clark-Lempers, D., & Simons, R. L. (1989). Economic hardship, parenting, and distress in adolescence. Child Development, 60, 25–39.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lundberg, I., Damström, T. K., Hällsträm, T., & Forsell, Y. (2005). Determinants of non-participation, and the effects of non-participation on potential cause–effect relationships, in the part study on mental disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 475–483. doi:10.1007/s00127-005-0911-4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ma, J., Han, Y., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Delva, J., & Castillo, M. (2012). Corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior in santiago, chile. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 481–490. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.03.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593–614. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085542.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maxwell, S. E., & Cole, D. A. (2007). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation. Psychological Methods, 12, 23–44. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.12.1.23.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maxwell, S. E., Cole, D. A., & Mitchell, M. A. (2011). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation: partial and complete mediation under an autoregressive model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46, 816–841. doi:10.1080/00273171.2011.606716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mcleod, J. D., & Shanahan, M. J. (1996). Trajectories of poverty and children’s mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 207–220.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Merikangas, K. R., He, J.-P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in u.S. Adolescents: results from the national comorbidity survey replication–adolescent supplement (ncs-a). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 980–989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mian, N., Wainwright, L., Briggs-Gowan, M., & Carter, A. (2011). An ecological risk model for early childhood anxiety: the importance of early child symptoms and temperament. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 501–512. doi:10.1007/s10802-010-9476-0.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mistry, R. S., Vandewater, E. A., Huston, A. C., & McLoyd, V. C. (2002). Economic well-being and children’s social adjustment: the role of family process in an ethnically diverse low-income sample. Child Development, 73, 935–951.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mogstad, M., Langørgen, A., & Aaberge, R. (2007). Region-specific versus country-specific poverty lines in analysis of poverty. Journal of Economic Inequality, 5, 115–122. doi:10.1007/s10888-006-9024-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morawska, A., Winter, L., & Sanders, M. R. (2009). Parenting knowledge and its role in the prediction of dysfunctional parenting and disruptive child behaviour. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35, 217–226. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00929.x.

    Google Scholar 

  • Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2010). Mplus user’s guide. (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

  • Parke, R. D., Coltrane, S., Duffy, S., Buriel, R., Dennis, J., Powers, J., et al. (2004). Economic stress, parenting, and child adjustment in Mexican American and European American families. Child Development, 75, 1632–1656. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00807.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Patterson, G. R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1984). The correlation of family management practices and delinquency. Child Development, 55, 1299–1307.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010a). Children’s differential susceptibility to effects of parenting. Family Science, 1, 14–25. doi:10.1080/19424620903388554.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010b). Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care. Developmental Psychology, 46, 379–390. doi:10.1037/a0015203.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Milne, B. J., Thomson, W. M., Taylor, A., Sears, M. R., et al. (2002). Association between children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study. The Lancet, 360, 1640–1645.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ramchandani, P., & Psychogiou, L. (2009). Paternal psychiatric disorders and children’s psychosocial development. The Lancet, 374, 646–653. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60238-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reiss, F. (2013). Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 90, 24–31. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.026.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salkind, N. J., & Haskins, R. (1982). Negative income-tax - the impact on children from low-income families. Journal of Family Issues, 3, 165–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shrout, P. E. (2011). Commentary: mediation analysis, causal process, and cross-sectional data. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46, 852–860. doi:10.1080/00273171.2011.606718.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simons, R. L., Whitbeck, L. B., Conger, R. D., & Wu, C. I. (1991). Intergenerational transmission of harsh parenting. Developmental Psychology, 27, 159–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, M. L., Elder, G. H., & Conger, R. D. (1992). Linking economic hardship to adolescent aggression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 259–276.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Solantaus, T., Leinonen, J., & Punamäki, R.-L. (2004). Children’s Mental health in times of economic recession: replication and extension of the family economic stress model in finland. Developmental Psychology, 40, 412–429. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.3.412.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stang, A. (2003). Nonresponse research-an underdeveloped field in epidemiology. European Journal of Epidemiology, 18, 929–931.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Starfield, B., Riley, A. W., Witt, W. P., & Robertson, J. (2002a). Social class gradients in health during adolescence. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56, 354–361.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Starfield, B., Robertson, J., & Riley, A. W. (2002b). Social class gradients and health in childhood. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 2, 238–246.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • StataCorp. (2011). Stata/ic (version 12.1). Texas: StataCorp LP.

    Google Scholar 

  • Statistics Norway. (2009). Immigration and immigrants 2008 statistical analyses (pp. 104–180). Olso: Statistics Norway.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stormark, K. M., Heiervang, E., Heimann, M., Lundervold, A. J., & Gillberg, C. (2008). Predicting nonresponse bias from teacher ratings of mental health problems in primary school children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 3, 411–419. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9187-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomson, E., Hanson, T. L., & McLanahan, S. S. (1994). Family structure and child well-being: economic resources vs. parental behaviors. Social Forces, 73, 221–242. doi:10.1093/sf/73.1.221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uher, R., & Goodman, R. (2010). The everyday feeling questionnaire: the structure and validation of a measure of general psychological well-being and distress. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45, 413–423. doi:10.1007/s00127-009-0074-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Velez, C. N., Johnson, J., & Cohen, P. (1989). A longitudinal analysis of selected risk factors for childhood psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 861–864. doi:10.1097/00004583-198911000-00009.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Volling, B. L., & Belsky, J. (1991). Multiple determinants of father involvement during infancy in dual-earner and single-earner families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 461–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wadsworth, M. E., & Achenbach, T. M. (2005). Explaining the link between low socioeconomic status and psychopathology: testing two mechanisms of the social causation hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1146–1153. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1146.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Waylen, A., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2010). Factors influencing parenting in early childhood: a prospective longitudinal study focusing on change. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36, 198–207. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.01037.x.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolke, D., Waylen, A., Samara, M., Steer, C., Goodman, R., Ford, T., et al. (2009). Selective drop-out in longitudinal studies and non-biased prediction of behaviour disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195, 249–256. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.053751.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wyatt Kaminski, J., Valle, L., Filene, J., & Boyle, C. (2008). A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 567–589. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9201-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the children and parents participating in the study. The authors are also grateful to two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments and suggestions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tormod Bøe.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

ESM 1

(PNG 98 kb)

ESM 2

(PNG 98 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bøe, T., Sivertsen, B., Heiervang, E. et al. Socioeconomic Status and Child Mental Health: The Role of Parental Emotional Well-Being and Parenting Practices. J Abnorm Child Psychol 42, 705–715 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9818-9

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9818-9

Keywords

Navigation