Skip to main content
Log in

Neuroticism, Life Events and Negative Thoughts in the Development of Depression in Adolescent Girls

  • Published:
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Theories of depression suggest that cognitive and environmental factors may explain the relationship between personality and depression. This study tested such a model in early adolescence, incorporating neuroticism, stress-generation and negative automatic thoughts in the development of depressive symptoms. Participants (896 girls, mean age 12.3 years) completed measures of personality and depressive symptoms, and 12 months later completed measures of depressive symptoms, recent stressors and negative automatic thoughts. Path analysis supported a model in which neuroticism serves as a distal vulnerability for depression, conferring a risk of experiencing dependent negative events and negative automatic thoughts, which fully mediate the effect of neuroticism on later depression. A second path supported a maintenance model for depression in adolescence, with initial levels of depression predicting dependent negative events, negative automatic thoughts and subsequent depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, initial depression was also associated with later independent life events. This study establishes potential mechanisms through which personality contributes to the development of depression in adolescent girls.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abela, J. R. Z. (2001). The hopelessness theory of depression: a test of the diathesis-stress and causal mediation components in third and seventh grade children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 241–254. doi:10.1023/A:1010333815728.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Abramson, L., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96(2), 358–372. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.96.2.358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ABS (2006). Labour force status in the 2006 Australian census, Australian bureau of statistics. Retrieved 25/08/08, from http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/ABS@.nsf/Latestproducts/00D58320BB5387A4CA25729E0008A884?opendocument

  • Allen, J. L. (2005). The role of life events in child anxiety. Unpublished PhD, Macquarie University.

  • Allison, S., Roeger, L., Martin, G., & Keeves, J. (2001). Gender differences in the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation in young adolescents. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35(4), 498–503. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00927.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Angold, A., & Worthman, C. W. (1993). Puberty onset of gender differences in rates of depression: a developmental, epidemiologic and neuroendocrine perspective. Journal of Affective Disorders, 29(2–3), 145–158. doi:10.1016/0165-0327(93)90029-J.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arbuckle, J. L. (2007). Amos 16.0 Users Guide. Spring House, PA: Amos Development Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beck, A. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beck, A. T. (1983). Cognitive therapy of depression: New perspectives. In J. E. Barrett (Ed.), Treatment of depression: Old controversies and new approaches. New York: Raven.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, D. S., Ambrosini, P. J., Kudes, D., Metz, C., & Rabinovich, H. (2005). Gender differences in adolescent depression: do symptoms differ for boys and girls? Journal of Affective Disorders, 89(1–3), 35–44. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2005.05.020.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238–246. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Birmaher, B., Ryan, N., Williamson, D., Brent, D., & Kaufman, J. (1996). Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years. Part II. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1575–1583. doi:10.1097/00004583-199612000-00008.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bohon, C., Stice, E., Burton, E., Fudell, M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2008). A prospective test of cognitive vulnerability models of depression with adolescent girls. Behavior Therapy, 39, 79–90. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2007.05.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bollen, K. A. (1986). Sample size and Bentler and Bonett’s nonnormed fit index. Psychometrika, 51, 375–377. doi:10.1007/BF02294061.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–192). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chou, C., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). Estimates and tests in structural equation modelling. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modelling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 37–55). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clark, L. A. (2005). Temperament as a unifying basis for personality and psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 505–521. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.505.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Clark, L. A., Watson, D., & Mineka, S. (1994). Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 103–116. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.1.103.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: questions and tips in the use of structural equation modelling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(4), 558–577. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.558.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Compas, B. E., Howell, D. C., Phares, V., & Williams, R. A. (1989). Risk factors for emotional/behavioral problems in young adolescents: a prospective analysis of adolescent and parental stress and symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 732–740. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.57.6.732.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Daley, S. E., Hammen, C., Burge, D., & Davila, J. (1997). Predictors of the generation of episodic stress: a longitudinal study of late adolescent women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 2251–2259. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.106.2.251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Damon, W., & Hart, D. (1982). The development of self-understanding from infancy through adolescence. Child Development, 53, 841–864. doi:10.2307/1129122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eley, T. (1997). Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: etiological links between normality and abnormality. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38, 861–865. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01604.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eley, T. C., & Stevenson, J. (2000). Specific life events and chronic experiences differentially associated with depression and anxiety in young twins. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 383–394. doi:10.1023/A:1005173127117.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1992). Manual for the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire–Revised. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ge, X., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Trajectories of stressful life events and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 30, 467–483. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.30.4.467.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. J. (2001). Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and the emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 37, 404–417.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodyer, I. M. (1991). Social events, experiences and development. In I. M. Goodyer (Ed.), Life experiences, development and childhood psychopathology (pp. 3–22). Chichester: Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodyer, I. M. (2001). Life events: their nature and effects. In I. M. Goodyer (Ed.), Depressed child and adolescent (2nd ed., pp. 204–232). London/New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodyer, I. M., Wright, C., & Altham, P. M. (1990). Recent achievements and adversities in anxious and depressed school-age children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 31, 1063–1077. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb00846.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodyer, I. M., Herbert, J., Tamplin, A., & Altham, P. M. E. (2000). Recent life events, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone and the onset of major depression in high-risk adolescents. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 499–504. doi:10.1192/bjp.177.6.499.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grayson, D. A. (1986). Latent trait analysis of the Eysenck personality questionnaire. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 20(3), 217–235. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(86)90005-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hammen, C. (1991). Generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555–561. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.555.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hammen, C. (1999). The emergence of an interpersonal approach to depression. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hammen, C., Burge, D., & Adrian, C. (1991). Timing of mothers and child depression in a longitudinal study of children at risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 341–345. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.59.2.341.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hankin, B. L. (2006). Adolescent depression: description, causes, and interventions. Epilepsy & Behavior, 8(1), 102–114. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2005.10.012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (2001). Development of gender differences in depression: an elaborated cognitive vulnerability–transactional stress theory. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 773–796. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.127.6.773.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hankin, B. L., Roesch, L., & Mermelstein, R. (2004). Depression, stressors, and gender differences in adolescence: examination of a transactional stress generation hypothesis in a multiwave study. Kobe, Japan: Paper presented at the the World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harkness, K. L., & Luther, J. (2001). Clinical risk factors for the generation of life events in major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(4), 564–572. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.110.4.564.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Harrington, R., Fudge, H., Rutter, M., Pickles, A., & Hill, J. (1990). Adult outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 465–473.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes on covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jolly, J. B., & Dykman, R. A. (1994). Using self report data to differentiate anxious and depressive symptoms in adolescents: cognitive content specificity and global distress? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18(1), 25–37. doi:10.1007/BF02359393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kendler, K. S., Neale, M., Kessler, R., Heath, A., & Eaves, L. (1993). A twin study of recent life events and difficulties. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 789–796.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kendler, K. S., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Personality and the experience of environmental adversity. Psychological Medicine, 33, 1193–1202. doi:10.1017/S0033291703008298.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kendler, K. S., Gatz, M., Gardner, C. O., & Pederse, N. L. (2006). Personality and major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(10), 1113–1120. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.10.1113. American Medical Assn.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., & Merikangas, K. R. (2001). Mood disorders in children and adolescents: an epidemiologic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1002–1014. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01129-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kline, R. (1998). Data preparation and screening. In R. Kline (Ed.), Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (pp. 67–91). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krueger, R. F. (1999). Personality traits in late adolescence predict mental disorders in early adulthood: a prospective-epidemiological study. Journal of Personality, 67, 39–65. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00047.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lakdawalla, Z., & Hankin, B. L. (2008). Personality and psychopathology: prospective tests of cognitive vulnerability and stress as mediating processes. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30(2), 121–131. doi:10.1007/s10862-007-9053-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leahy, R. L. (ed). (2004). Decision Making and Psychopathology. New York, NY: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levy, R., & Hancock, G. R. (2007). A framework of statistical tests for comparing mean and covariance structure models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(1), 33–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luby, J. L., Heffelfinger, A. K., Mrakotsky, C., Hessler, M. J., Brown, K. M., & Hildebrand, T. (2002). Preschool major depressive disorder: preliminary validation for developmentally modified DSM-IV criteria. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(8), 928–937.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maxwell, S. E., & Cole, D. A. (2007). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation. Psychological Methods, 12(1), 23–44. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.12.1.23.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Millikan, E., Wamboldt, M. Z., & Bihun, J. T. (2002). Perceptions of the family, personality characteristics, and adolescent internalizing symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12), 1486–1494.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Monroe, S. M., & Roberts, J. E. (1990). Conceptualizing and measuring life stress: problems, principles, procedures, progress. Stress Medicine, 6(3), 209–216. doi:10.1002/smi.2460060306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Radloff, L. S. (1991). The use of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20(2), 149–166. doi:10.1007/BF01537606.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reinherz, H. Z., Stewart-Berghauer, G., Pakiz, B., Frost, A. K., Moeykens, B. A., & Holmes, W. M. (1989). The relationship of early risk and current mediators to depressive symptomatology in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 942–947. doi:10.1097/00004583-198911000-00021.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, C. M. (1999). The prevention of depression in children and adolescents. Australian Psychologist, 34(1), 49–57. doi:10.1080/00050069908257425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rudolph, K. D., & Hammen, C. (1999). Age and gender as determinants of stress exposure, generation, and reactions in youngsters: a transactional perspective. Child Development, 70, 660–677. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00048.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sandberg, S., Rutter, M., Giles, S., Owen, A., Champion, L., Nicholls, J., et al. (1993). Assessment of psychosocial experiences in childhood: methodological issues and some illustrative findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 34(6), 879–897. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1993.tb01096.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sandberg, S., McGuinness, D., Hillary, C., & Rutter, M. (1998). Independence of childhood life events and chronic adversities: a comparison of two patient groups and controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(7), 728–735. doi:10.1097/00004583-199807000-00012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Santor, D. A., & Rosenbluth, M. (2005). Evaluating the contribution of personality factors to depressed mood in adolescents: conceptual and clinical issues. In M. Rosenbluth, S. H. Kennedy & R. M. Bagby (Eds.), Depression and personality: Conceptual and clinical challenges (pp. 229–266). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sawyer, M. G., Arney, F. M., Baghurst, P. A., Clark, J. J., Graetz, B. W., Kosky, R. J., et al. (2000). The mental health of young people in Australia, Mental Health and Special Programs Branch. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sawyer, M., Spence, S., & Pfeiffer, S. (in preparation). School-based prevention of depressive symptoms: a randomised controlled study of the effectiveness of the beyondblue schools based initiative.

  • Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147–177. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.2.147.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schniering, C., & Rapee, R. (2002). Development and validation of a measure of children’s automatic thoughts: the children’s automatic thoughts scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(9), 1091–1109. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00022-0.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schniering, C. A., & Lyneham, H. J. (2007). The Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale in a clinical sample: psychometric properties and clinical utility. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(8), 1931–1940. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.09.009.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schniering, C. A., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). The relationship between automatic thoughts and negative emotions in children and adolescents: a test of the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(3), 464–470.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shea, M. T., & Yen, S. (2005). Personality traits/disorders and depression: a summary of conceptual and empirical findings. In M. Rosenbluth, S. H. Kennedy & R. M. Bagby (Eds.), Depression and personality: Conceptual and clinical challenges (pp. 43–64). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheffield, J. K., Spence, S. H., Rapee, R. M., Kowalenko, N., Wignall, A., Davis, A., et al. (2006). Evaluation of universal, indicated, and combined cognitive-behavioral approaches to the prevention of depression among adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 66–79. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.66.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shih, J. H., Eberhart, N. K., Hammen, C. L., & Brennan, P. A. (2006). Differential exposure and reactivity to interpersonal stress predict sex differences in adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(1), 103–115. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3501_9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shortt, A. L., & Spence, S. H. (2006). Risk and protective factors for depression in youth. Behaviour Change, 23(1), 1–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silberg, J. L., & Rutter, M. (2002). Nature-nurture interplay in the risks associated with parental depression. In I. H. Gotlib (Ed.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 13–36). Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Silberg, J. L., Pickles, A., Rutter, M., Hewitt, J., Simonoff, E., Maes, H., et al. (1999). The influence of genetic factors and life stress on depression among adolescent girls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(3), 225–232. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.3.225.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: an interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173–180. doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tellegen, A. (1985). Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report. In A. H. Tuma & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 681–706). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tiet, Q. Q., Bird, H. R., Hoven, C. W., Moore, R., Wu, P., Wicks, J., et al. (2001). Relationship between specific adverse life events and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(2), 153–163. doi:10.1023/A:1005288130494.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38, 1–10. doi:10.1007/BF02291170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1992). Affects separable and inseparable: on the hierarchical arrangement of the negative affects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 489–505. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.62.3.489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Harkness, A. R. (1994). Structures of personality and their relevance to psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 18–31. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.1.18.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Watts, S. J., & Markham, R. A. (2005). Etiology of depression in children. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32(3), 266–231.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wingate, L. R., & Joiner, T. E. J. (2004). Depression-related stress generation: a longitudinal study of black adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 35, 247–261. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80038-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yap, M. B., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. (2007). Using an emotion regulation framework to understand the role of temperament and family processes in risk for adolescent depressive disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10(2), 180–196. doi:10.1007/s10567-006-0014-0.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by a grant from the Australian Research Council to Ron Rapee and also by a research fellowship from the NSW Institute of Psychiatry to Amy Kercher. Advice on statistical analyses was gratefully received from Alan Taylor, Macquarie University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amy J. Kercher.

Appendix A

Appendix A

CES-D-12 Items

  1. 1.

    I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor.

  2. 2.

    I felt that I could not shake off the blues, even with help from family or friends.

  3. 3.

    I felt that I was just as good as other people. * #

  4. 4.

    I felt depressed.

  5. 5.

    I felt hopeful about the future. * #

  6. 6.

    I was happy.

  7. 7.

    I felt lonely.

  8. 8.

    People were unfriendly.

  9. 9.

    I had crying spells.

  10. 10.

    I felt sad.

  11. 11.

    I felt that people disliked me. #

  12. 12.

    I could not get “going”.

* Recoded

# Removed in non-cognitive version (CES-D-9)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kercher, A.J., Rapee, R.M. & Schniering, C.A. Neuroticism, Life Events and Negative Thoughts in the Development of Depression in Adolescent Girls. J Abnorm Child Psychol 37, 903–915 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9325-1

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9325-1

Keywords

Navigation