Highly sensitive nanoplatform based on green gold sononanoparticles for phenol determination in olive oil


Here, we describe a novel, fast, simple and green method for synthesis of gold sononanoparticles (AuSNPs) employing three different parts of Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) extracts such as stems (AuSNPs-G.S), leaves (AuSNPs-G.L) and the mixture of both (AuSNPs-G.M), in which plant biomaterials were used as reducing and capping agents using a high energy ultrasound. The resulting AuSNPs were characterized using a wide range of instrumental techniques including UV–Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, STEM, TEM, SEM, and EDS. The formation of AuSNPs was confirmed by UV–Vis, showing an absorption peak in the range of 532–540 nm. The FTIR analysis identifies the interactions between gold and the bioactive molecules implicated in nanoparticle synthesis. The STEM, TEM and SEM results determine the morphology of the AuSNPs responsible for the three different extracts in the synthesis process. Biosynthesized AuSNPs have an average size of 16–33 nm with varied morphology. Then, for the first time we have demonstrated an eco-friendly sensor based on Sonogel-Carbon electrode (SNGCE) modified with biosynthesized AuSNPs-G.M for phenol determination. This sensor was showing a lower limit of detection of 67 nM (n = 3), excellent sensitivity, reproducibility, repeatability and high selectivity; thanks to the AuSNPs as cost-effective nanomaterials. Finally, the analytical sensor was applied successfully for the determination of phenol in real sample olive oil with a satsisfactory recoveries.

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The authors would like to thank the Tunisian MHESR for supporting this work and the University of Sousse for the “Bourse d′alternance” fellowship awarded to Siwar Jebril. J.J. García-Guzmán greatly acknowledges Post doc scholarship entitled “Estancias en centros de Ayuda para la Realización de Estancias de Investigación en Universidades de Prestigio. UCA Internacional” and “Contrato Puente Posdoctorales” both framed in the Program of promotion and impulse of research and transfer of the University of Cadiz 2018–2019. Spanish authors greatly acknowledge Junta de Andalucía and Institute of Research on Electron Microscopy and Materials (IMEYMAT – BIOSENSEP project) for their financial support. Authors are also grateful to Banco de Santander (Spain), Aula del Estrecho and Oficina de Relaciones Internacionales of University of Cadiz for the support given through the International Collaboration Project: 003ENE2019: ‘Fortalecimiento de la colaboración en materia de investigación en el área de química con la Universidad de Sousse: Síntesis ecológica y caracterización de nanoestructuras metálicas. Aplicación en agricultura y medioambiente’, (Call 2018/2019 – Resolución del Rector de la Universidad de Cádiz UCA/R96REC/2018 de 31 de octubre de 2018). Finally, Spanish authors thank ‘Programa de fomento e impulso de la investigación y de la transferencia de la Universidad de Cádiz 2018-2019’ for the funds given through the project PR2018-070 (Proyectos de Investigación-Puente 2018).


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SJ did Conceptualization, Methodology, Investigation, Data curation, Writing- original draft, visualization. AS-P did Conceptualization, Methodology. JJG-G did Methodology, Investigation. LC-A did Validation, Resources. JMP-S did Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Writingreview and editing, Supervision, funding acquisition. CD did Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing-review and editing, Supervision, funding acquisition.

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Correspondence to José María Palacios-Santander or Chérif Dridi.

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Jebril, S., Sierra-Padilla, A., García-Guzmán, J.J. et al. Highly sensitive nanoplatform based on green gold sononanoparticles for phenol determination in olive oil. J Appl Electrochem (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10800-021-01544-2

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  • Gold sononanoparticles
  • Green synthesis
  • Phenol
  • Eco-friendly sensor
  • Olive oil