Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 49, Issue 11, pp 1123–1132 | Cite as

Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shelled silicon–carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  • Hailin Zhang
  • Jiaqiang Xu
  • Jiujun ZhangEmail author
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Batteries


In this paper, core-shelled silicon–carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are prepared by a cost-effective method of the combined mechanical ball milling and high-temperature heat treatment. The microstructures and morphologies of such anode materials with different silicon contents are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. Both coin and soft-packed LIBs are fabricated using these silicon–carbon composites as anode materials. The batteries can give high capacities of 377.7 mA h g−1, 418.5 mA h g−1, 450.9 mA h g−1, and 500.1 mA h g−1 at the silicon contents of 2.0%, 6.5%, 9.5%, and 14.5%, respectively. The effects of silicon content on the coulomb efficiency, low-temperature capacity, resistance, and cycle life are also studied, and the results show that a silicon content of 9.5% can give the best battery performance. Considering that the process has no surfactant, corrosive acidic or alkaline reagent added, and that the ball milling and heat treatment are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly, it can be expected that the fabrication process described in this paper should be usable for large-scale production of silicon–carbon composite materials for anodes of LIBs.

Graphic abstract


Silicon–carbon Core–shell Anodes Lithium-ion battery 



  1. 1.
    Lu J, Chen Z, Pan F, Cui Y, Amine K (2018) High-performance anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Electrochem Energy Rev 1:35–53Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ding Y, Cano ZP, Yu A, Lu J, Chen Z (2019) Automotive li-ion batteries: current status and future perspectives. Electrochem Energy Rev 2:1–28Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dou F, Shi L, Chen G, Zhang D (2019) Silicon/carbon composite anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochem Energy Rev 2:149–198Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Megahed S, Scrosati B (1994) Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. J Power Sources 51:79–104Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Su X, Wu Q, Li J, Xiao X, Lott A, Shelden BW, Wu J (2014) Silicon-based nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries: a review. Adv Energy Mater 4(1):1–23Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang J, Xu T, Huang X, Li H, Ma T (2016) Recent progress of silicon composites as anode materials for secondary batteries. RSC Adv 6:87778–87790Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shivaraju GC, Sudakar C, Prakash AS (2019) High-rate and long-cycle life performance of nano-porous nano-silion derived from mesoporous NCM-41 as an anode for lithium-ion battery. Electrochim Acta 294:357–364Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kwon Y, Park G, Cho J (2007) Synthesis and electrochemical properties of lithium-electroactive surface-stablilized silicon auantum dots. Electrochim Acta 52:4663–4668Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Szczech JR, Jin S (2011) Nanostructured silicon for high capacity lithium battery anodes. Energy Envivon Sci 4:56–72Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ji J, Ji H, Zhang LL, Zhao X, Bai X, Fan X, Zhang F, Ruoff RS (2013) Graphene-encapsulated Si on ultrathin-graphite foam as anode for high capacity lithium-ion batteries. Adv Mater 25(33):4673–4677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu H, Chan G, Choi JW, Ryu I, Yao Y, McDowell MT, Lee SW, Jackson A, Yang Y, Hu L, Cui Y (2012) Stable cycling of double-walled silicon nanotube battery anodes through solid-electrolyte interphase control. Nat Nano Technol 7:310–315Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hong I, Scrosati B, Croce F (2013) Mesoporous, Si/C composite anode for Li battery obtained by magnesium-thermal reduction process. Solid State Ionics 232:24–28Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen T, Wu J, Zhang Q, Su X (2017) Recent advancement of SiOx, based anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 363:126–144Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang J, Takeda Y, Imanishi N, Capglia C, Xie JY, Yamamoto O (2002) SiOx-based anodes for secondary lithium batteries. Solid State Ionics Diffus React 152:125–129Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang T, Gao J, Zhang HP, Yang LC, Wu YP, Wu HQ (2007) Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell Si/SiO nanocomposite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Electrochem Soc 9:886–890Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen Y, Xu M, Zhang Y, Lucht BL, Bose A (2015) All-aqueous directed assembly strategy for forming high-capacity, stable silicon/carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:21391–21397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim JS, Pfleging W, Kohler R, Seifert HJ, Kim TY, Byun D, Jung H-G, Choi W, Lee JK (2015) Three-dimensional silicon/carbon core-shell electrode as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. J Power Sources 279:13–20Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen S, Shen L, Van Aken PA, Maier J, Yu Y (2017) Dual functionalized double carbon shells coated silicon nanoparticles for high performance lithium-ion batteries. Adv Mater 29:1–8Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Su H, Barragan AA, Geng L, Long D, Ling L, Bozhilov KN, Mangolini L, Guo J (2017) Colloidal synthesis of silicon-carbon composite material for lithium-ion batteries. Angew Chem Int Ed 56:10780–10785Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen H, Wang Z, Hou X, Fu L, Wang S, Hu X, Qin H, Wu Y, Ru Q, Liu X, Hu S (2019) Mass-producible method for preparation of a carbon-coated graphite@plasma nano-silicon@carbon composite with enhanced performance as lithium ion battery anode. Electrochim Acta 249:113–121Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen H, Hou X, Chen F, Wang S, Wu B, Ru Q, Qin H, Xia Y (2018) Milled flake graphite/plasma nano-silicon@composite with void sandwich structure for high performance as lithium ion battery anode at high performance as lithium ion battery anode at high temperature. Carbon 130:433–440Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li M, Hou X, Sha Y, Wang J, Hu S, Liu X, Shao Z (2014) Facile spray-drying/pyrolysis synthesis of core-shell structure graphite/silicon-porous carbon composite as a superior anode for Li-ion batteries. J Power Sources 248:721–728Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jo YN, Kim Y, Kim JS, Song JH, Kim KJ, Kwag CY, Lee DJ, Park CW, Kim YJ (2010) Si-graphite composites as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries. J Power Sources 195:6031–6036Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    United States Idsho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (2003) FreedomCAR battery test manual for power assist hybrid electric vehicles. DOE/ID-11069Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gan L, Guo H, Wang Z, Li X, Peng W, Wang J, Huang S, Su M (2013) A facile synthesis of graphite/silicon/graphene spherical composite anode for lithium batteries. Electrochim Acta 104:117–123Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu Z, Guan D, Yu Q, Xu L, Zhuang Z, Zhu T, Zhao D, Zhou L, Mai L (2018) Monodisperse and homogeneous SiOx/C microspheres: a promising high-capacity and durable anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Energy Storage Mater 13:112–118Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith K, Wang CY (2006) Power and thermal characterization of a lithium ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles. J Power Sources 160:662–673Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Forgez C, Do DV, Friedrich G, Morcrette M, Delacourt C (2010) Thermal modeling of a cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite lithium ion battery. J Power Sources 195:2961–2968Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, College of SciencesShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Institute for Sustainable Energy/College of SciencesShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations