Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 48, Issue 12, pp 1381–1388 | Cite as

On the regeneration of thermally regenerative ammonia batteries

  • Fabrizio Vicari
  • Adriana D’Angelo
  • Yohan Kouko
  • Alessandro Loffredi
  • Alessandro Galia
  • Onofrio ScialdoneEmail author
Research Article


In the past few years, thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) has been proposed as an effective tool to recover waste heat at temperatures below 130 °C. Most of the literature available is devoted to the power production step, with less attention being given to the regeneration step (e.g. the removal of ammonia from the anolyte). In this paper, the TRAB is analyzed with particular attention to the regeneration step and to the study of various generation of energy-regeneration cycles. It was shown that approximately 90 °C is necessary for the regeneration step due to the fact that ammonia is present in the anolyte mainly as a complex. Various cycles were performed with success, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed regeneration step.

Graphical abstract


Thermally regenerative ammonia battery TRAB TREC Regeneration Waste heat Ammonia–copper complex 



This study was supported by the European Commission through the project H2020-LCE-2014-1-640667 - Conversion of Low Grade Heat to Power through closed loop Reverse Electro-Dialysis (RED-Heat-to-Power). Authors would like to thank Miss Urvi Patel for help proofreading the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10800_2018_1240_MOESM1_ESM.docx (397 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 397 KB)


  1. 1.
    Crutzen PJ (2002) Geology of mankind. Nature 415:23–23. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wagreich M, Draganits E (2018) Early mining and smelting lead anomalies in geological archives as potential stratigraphic markers for the base of an early Anthropocene. Anthr Rev. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gao C, Lee SW, Yang Y (2017) Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle for low-grade heat harvesting. ACS Energy Lett 2:2326–2334. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Panayiotou GP, Bianchi G, Georgiou G et al (2017) Preliminary assessment of waste heat potential in major European industries. Energy Proc 123:335–345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chum HL, Osteryoung RA (1980) Review of thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. Rep SERI/TR 332416:1Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang F, Liu J, Yang W, Logan BE (2015) A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power. Energy Environ Sci 8:343–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang F, LaBarge N, Yang W et al (2015) Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures. ChemSusChem 8:1043–1048. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rahimi M, Angelo AD, Gorski CA et al (2017) Electrical power production from low-grade waste heat using a thermally regenerative ethylenediamine battery. J Power Sources 351:45–50. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rahimi M, Kim T, Gorski CA, Logan BE (2018) A thermally regenerative ammonia battery with carbon-silver electrodes for converting low-grade waste heat to electricity. J Power Sources 373:95–102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhu X, Rahimi M, Gorski CA, Logan B (2016) A thermally-regenerative ammonia-based flow battery for electrical energy recovery from waste heat. ChemSusChem 9:873–879. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rahimi M, Zhu L, Kowalski KL et al (2017) Improved electrical power production of thermally regenerative batteries using a poly (phenylene oxide) based anion exchange membrane. J Power Sources 342:956–963. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rahimi M, Schoener Z, Zhu X et al (2017) Removal of copper from water using a thermally regenerative electrodeposition battery. J Hazard Mater 322:551–556. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vazquez-Arenas J, Lazaro I, Cruz R (2007) Electrochemical study of binary and ternary copper complexes in ammonia-chloride medium. Electrochim Acta 52:6106–6117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wagman DD, Evans WH, Parker VB et al (1969) Selected values of chemical thermodynamic properties: tables for elements 35 through 53 in the standard order of arrangement. Washington, D.C. 20234Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pavelka M, Burda JV (2005) Theoretical description of copper Cu(I)/Cu(II) complexes in mixed ammine-aqua environment. DFT and ab initio quantum chemical study. Chem Phys 312:193–204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dean JA (1990) Lange’s handbook of chemistry. Mater Manuf Process 5:687–688. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabrizio Vicari
    • 1
  • Adriana D’Angelo
    • 1
  • Yohan Kouko
    • 2
  • Alessandro Loffredi
    • 1
  • Alessandro Galia
    • 1
  • Onofrio Scialdone
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Innovation, Industrial and Digital (DIID, Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica)Università degli Studi di PalermoPalermoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Jean Perrin Faculty of SciencesUniversity of ArtoisLensFrance

Personalised recommendations