Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 345–352 | Cite as

Electron-beam-irradiated polyethylene membrane with improved electrochemical and thermal properties for lithium-ion batteries

  • Ki Jae KimEmail author
  • Min-Sik Park
  • Taeeun Yim
  • Ji-Sang Yu
  • Young-Jun Kim
Research Article


The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of polyethylene (PE) separators are investigated. The high-energy electron-beam irradiation creates carbonyl bands on the surface of bare PE separators, however, it does not affect morphology and pore structure of the separators. In addition, cells employing the electron-beam-irradiated PE separators clearly exhibit better ionic conductivity and rate capability without any degradation in cycling performance compared to cells employing the bare PE separator. This improvement is explained by a formation of new functional group on PE surface—the electron-beam irradiation creates carbonyl group on the surface of the PE separator and it readily facilitates the migration of Li+ and improves solvent affinity of the PE separators. Furthermore, the thermal stability of PE separators is effectively enhanced by irradiating them with electron beams. The thermal shrinkage of the electron-beam-irradiated PE separators is observed to be much lower than that of bare PE separators, resulting in an increased gap between the shut-down and melting integrity temperatures. From these results, it is believed that the electron-beam irradiation can be considered as an effective approach to enhance electrochemical and thermal properties of PE separator.


Electron-beam irradiation PE separator Lithium-ion battery Thermal and electrochemical properties 



This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (Project No. 20112010100140) and R&D program (Project No. 10041942) of the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy, Republic of Korea.


  1. 1.
    Zhang SS, Xu K, Jow TR (2003) Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite as a co-solvent for electrolytes in Li-ion batteries. J Power Sources 113:166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arora P, Zhang Z (2004) Battery separators. Chem Rev 104:4419–4462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Venugopal G, Moore J, Howard J, Pendalwar S (1999) Characterization of microporous separators for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 77:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Uchida I, Ishikawa H, Mohamedi M, Umeda M (2003) AC-impedance measurements during thermal runaway process in several lithium/polymer batteries. J Power Sources 119–121:821–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu MS, Chiang PCJ, Lin JC, Jan YS (2004) Correlation between electrochemical characteristics and thermal stability of advanced lithium-ion batteries in abuse tests-short circuit tests. Electrochim Acta 49:1803–1812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang X (2011) Separator technologies for lithium-ion batteries. J Solid State Electrochem 15:649–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park JH, Cho JH, Park W, Ryoo DJ, Yoon SJ, Kim JH, Jeong YU, Lee SY (2010) Close-packed SiO2/poly(methyl methacrylate) binary nanoparticles-coated polyethylene separators for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 195:8306–8310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xiang H, Chen J, Li Z, Wang H (2011) An inorganic membrane as a separator for lithium-ion battery. J Power Sources 196:8651–8655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cho TH, Sakai T, Tanase S, Kimura K, Kondo Y, Tarao T, Tanaka M (2007) Electrochemical performance of polyacrylonitrile nanofiber-based nonwoven separator for lithium-ion battery. Electrochem Solid State Lett 10:A159–A162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cho TH, Tanaka M, Ohnishi H, Kondo Y, Yosikazu M, Nakamura T, Sakai T (2010) Composite nonwoven separator for lithium-ion battery: development and characterization. J Power Sources 195:4272–4277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krupa I, Luyt AS (2001) Thermal and mechanical properties of LLDPE cross-linked with gamma radiation. Polym Degrad Stab 71:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shaban AM, Kinavvy N (1995) Crosslinking rate dependence on thickness of high-density polyethylene sheets after gamma-ray irradiation in the presence of air. Polymer 36:4767–4770Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    George J, Kumar R, Sajeevkumar VA, Sabapathy SN, Vaijapurkar SG, Kumar D, Kchawahha A, Bawa AS (2007) Effect of gamma-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono- and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials. Radiat Phys Chem 76:1205–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Croonenborghs B, Smith MA, Strain P (2007) X-ray versus gamma irradiation effects on polymers. Radiat Phys Chem 76:1676–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim KJ, Kim YH, Song JH, Jo YN, Kim JS, Kim YJ (2010) Effects of gamma ray irradiation on thermal and electrochemical properties of polyethylene separator for Li ion batteries. J Power Sources 195:6075–6080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fintzou AT, Kontominas MG, Badeka AV, Stahl MR, Riganakos KA (2007) Effect of electron-beam and gamma-irradiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of polypropylene syringes as a function of irradiation dose: study under vacuum. Radiat Phys Chem 76:1147–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mathakari NL, Bhoraskar VN, Dhole SD (2008) Me V energy beam induced damage in isotactic polypropylene. Nucl Instrum Meth B 266:3075–3080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murthy MR, Rao EV (2002) Ion-beam modifications of the surface morphology and conductivity in some polymer thin films. Bull Mater Sci 25:403–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chytiri S, Goulas AE, Riganakos KA, Kontominas MG (2006) Thermal, mechanical and permeation properties of gamma-irradiated multilayer food packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled lower-density polyethylene. Radiat Phys Chem 75:416–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Evelyn AL, Ila D, Zimmerman RL, Bhat K, Poker DB, Hensley DK (1998) Effects of MeV ions on PE and PVDC. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 141:164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Popok VN, Azarko II, Odzhaev VB, Toth A, Khaibullin RI (2001) High fluence ion beam modification of polymer surfaces: EPR and XPS studies. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B B178:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sohn JY, Gwon SJ, Choi JH, Shin J, Nho YC (2008) Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 266:4994–5000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim KJ, Kim JH, Park MS, Kwon HK, Kim H, Kim YJ (2012) Enhancement of electrochemical and thermal properties of polyethylene separators coated with polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene co-polymer for Li-ion batteries. J Power Sources 198:298–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yasuaki N (2001). Japan Patent 2001-207713Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ki Jae Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Min-Sik Park
    • 1
  • Taeeun Yim
    • 1
  • Ji-Sang Yu
    • 1
  • Young-Jun Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Battery Research CenterKorea Electronics Technology InstituteSungnam-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations