Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 10, pp 985–994 | Cite as

l-Lactic acid biosensor based on multi-layered graphene

  • Antonio Radoi
  • Alexandru Cosmin Obreja
  • Sandra A. V. Eremia
  • Adina Bragaru
  • Adrian Dinescu
  • Gabriel-Lucian Radu
Research Article


Pristine graphene platelets and graphene oxide were used as electrode modifiers, aiming the investigation of their electrochemical efficacy towards β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The electrochemical detection of NADH is one of the most studied areas of bioelectroanalysis because of the ubiquity of NAD(P)H-based enzymatic reactions in nature. Commercially available graphene and laboratory prepared graphene oxide were used to modify glassy carbon electrodes and the behaviour of such modified electrodes against potassium ferricyanide (III) and NADH was reported. Relying on the graphene-modified transducer, l-lactic dehydrogenase (l-LDH) was successfully immobilised in a 1 % Nafion® membrane. The developed biosensor, working at +250 mV versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode, was used to assess l-lactic acid in four different types of yogurts, revealing an l-lactic acid concentration ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 %.


Graphene Graphene oxide NADH l-Lactic acid Yogurt Biosensor 



β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


Oxidised form of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide




Graphene oxide


Modified glassy carbon


l-lactate dehydrogenase



This work was financially supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation thorough PN-II-RU-TE-2009-1 national program, under the project identification code TE_44.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Radoi
    • 1
  • Alexandru Cosmin Obreja
    • 1
  • Sandra A. V. Eremia
    • 2
  • Adina Bragaru
    • 1
  • Adrian Dinescu
    • 1
  • Gabriel-Lucian Radu
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology (IMT-Bucharest)BucharestRomania
  2. 2.Centre of BioanalysisNational Institute of Research and Development for Biological SciencesBucharestRomania

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