Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 271–278 | Cite as

Impact of microwave synthesis conditions on the rechargeable capacity of LiCoPO4 for lithium ion batteries

  • Reginald E. Rogers
  • Garry M. Clarke
  • Olivia N. Matthew
  • Matthew J. Ganter
  • Roberta A. DiLeo
  • Jason W. Staub
  • Michael W. Forney
  • Brian J. LandiEmail author
Original Paper


Lithium transition metal phosphates have the capability of improving cathode energy densities up to 800 Wh kg−1, a 27 % increase over conventional cathode active material energy densities. In this study, the effect of base-to-acid (NH4OH:H3PO4) stoichiometric conditions on the intrinsic reversible capacity of lithium cobalt phosphate (LiCoPO4) active material are investigated through microwave synthesis and electrochemical testing. Variation in solution pH results in an increase of 69 mAh g−1 in achievable capacity. X-ray diffraction results show highly crystalline LiCoPO4, with particle sizes ranging from 200 nm to greater than 1 μm based upon scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical analysis with 1 M LiPF6 EC:EMC (1:2 v/v) provides the highest capacity over multiple cycles. A discharge capacity of 128 mAh g−1 (78 % of theoretical capacity) is achievable for intrinsic LiCoPO4 without further treatment (e.g., carbon coating) at an effective 0.1 C rate with a proper constant current–constant voltage step. Analysis of reported synthesis techniques shows that microwave synthesis yields the highest capacity for the intrinsic LiCoPO4 material to date.


Batteries Lithium cobalt phosphate Microwave synthesis Nanomaterials 



We acknowledge funding support from the Department of Energy (DE-FG36-08 GO88110) and RIT Office for Diversity & Inclusion. We also acknowledge financial support from the U.S. Government including a Grant from the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program through funding from the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. R.A.D. acknowledges graduate student funding from a GAANN fellowship through the RIT Microsystems Engineering Ph.D. Program.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reginald E. Rogers
    • 1
    • 4
  • Garry M. Clarke
    • 1
  • Olivia N. Matthew
    • 1
  • Matthew J. Ganter
    • 2
    • 4
  • Roberta A. DiLeo
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jason W. Staub
    • 4
  • Michael W. Forney
    • 4
  • Brian J. Landi
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomedical EngineeringRochester Institute of TechnologyRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Golisano Institute for SustainabilityRochester Institute of TechnologyRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Microsystems EngineeringRochester Institute of TechnologyRochesterUSA
  4. 4.NanoPower Research LaboratoriesRochester Institute of TechnologyRochesterUSA

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