Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 9–13 | Cite as

Electrochemical growth of self-organized TiO2–WO3 composite nanotube layers: effects of applied voltage and time

  • Yoon-Chae Nah
  • Nabeen K. Shrestha
  • Doohun Kim
  • Patrik SchmukiEmail author
Short Communication


The present work demonstrates that morphology of TiO2–WO3 composite nanotubes formed by alloy anodization can be tuned by controlling applied voltages and time. Distinctive tube morphology can be formed by applying a voltage of more than 80 V. Nanotube diameter and length have a linear relationship with the anodization voltage with a current efficiency of almost 100 %. Furthermore, compared to pure TiO2, the composite nanotubes show a very uniform tube diameter along the tube axis even at the extended anodization time.


Ti–W alloy Anodization Self-organized Composite nanotubes 



This work was supported by DFG and FP-6 [Ti-nanotubes]. Dr. M. Oehring at the GKSS Forschungszentrum in Geesthacht is also acknowledged for providing the Ti–W alloys. Y. C. Nah was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1A1014075). N.·K. Shrestha was supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoon-Chae Nah
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nabeen K. Shrestha
    • 2
  • Doohun Kim
    • 2
  • Patrik Schmuki
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Energy, Materials and Chemical EngineeringKorea University of Technology and EducationCheonanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Materials ScienceWW4-LKO, University of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

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