Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 421–427 | Cite as

Electrochemical reduction of nitrate ion on various cathodes – reaction kinetics on bronze cathode

Article

Summary

The electrochemical reduction of NO3- in 0.1 M K2SO4 and 0.05 M KNO3 solution was studied on various electrodes in two different cell configurations, a divided and an undivided one. The products in all cases were NO2-, NH3, N2 and small amounts of NO2 and NO. The more efficient cathodes as regards the conversion of NO3- to N2 were Al and the alloy Sn85Cu15, where the selectivity for nitrogen formation was 43 and 35.3% at −1.8 and −2.0 V, respectively. The kinetic analysis of the experimental results was carried out by numerical solution of the resulted differential equations according to the scheme: \(NO_{3}^{-} {\buildrel k_{1} \over \rightarrow} NO_{2}^{-} {\buildrel k_{2} \over \rightarrow} NH_{3}\)\(NO_{2}^{-} {\buildrel k_{3} \over \rightarrow} N_{2}\) The rate constants on Sn85Cu15 at −2.0 V for the above reactions were found to be k1=4.9 × 10−4s−1, k2=1.76 × 10−5s−1 and k3=7.66 × 10−3lmol−1s−1. At more negative potential more NO2- ions reduced and converted either to N2 or NH3. The rate constant of reduction of nitrate was almost the same in the region between −1.7 and −2.0 V, because the reaction is limited by the diffusion. In order to oxidize a part of the undesirable byproducts NO2- and NH3 at the anode of the cell to nitrate and nitrogen respectively, an undivided cell was used. Comparison between the two cell configurations indicated that, although in the undivided cell the % removal efficiency of nitrate was lower than that in the divided one, the selectivities of NO2- and NH3 were 4.8 and 2.2 times lower, respectively.

Keywords

electrochemical kinetic analysis nitrate reduction removal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Strebel, O., Duynisveld, W.H.M., Boettcher, J. 1989Agric. Ecosyst. Environ.26189Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    EEC Council directive on the quality of water for human consumption (No-80/778 off)1980J. EEC.2291129Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    WHO, Guidelines for Drinking water Quality, Geneva 1993Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mateju, V., Cizinska, S., Krejci, J., Tomas, J. 1992Enzyme. Microb. Tech.14170Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Panyor, L., Fabiani, C. 1996Desalination104165Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schoeman, J.J., Steyn, A. 2003Desalination15515Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mani, K.N. 1991J. Membrane Sci.58117Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huang, C., Warg, H., Chiu, P. 1998Wat. Res.322257Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gao, W., Guan, N., Chen, J., Gyan, G., Jin, R., Zeng, H., Liu, Z., Zhang, F. 2003Appl. Catal. B46341Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gauthard, F., Epron, F., Barbier, J. 2003J. Catal.220182Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ottley, C., Davison, N., Edmunds, W. 1997Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta611819Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Inazu, K., Kitahara, M., Aika, K. 2004Catal. Today93–95263Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prusse, U., Hahnlein, M., Daum, J., Vorlop, K.D. 2000Catal. Today5579Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gao, W., Guan, N., Chen, J., Guan, X., Jin, R., Zeng, H., Liu, Z., Zhang, F. 2003Appl. Catal. B46341Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Paidar, M., Rousar, I., Bouzek, K. 1999J. Appl. Electrochem.29611Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ureta, S., Yanez, C. 1997Electrochim. Acta421725Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gootzen, J., Peeters, P., Dukers, J., Lefferts, L., Visscher, W., Van Veen, J. 1997J. Electroanal. Chem.434171Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, H., Robertson, D., Chambers, J., Hobbs, D. 1988J. Electrochem. Soc.1351154Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bockris, J., Kim, J. 1997J. Appl. Electrochem.27623Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Janssen, L.J.J., Pieterse, M.M.J., Barendrecht, E. 1976Electrochim. Acta2227Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rutten, O., Sandwijk, A., Weert, G. 1999J. Appl. Electrochem.2987Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xiang, Y., Zhou, D., Rushling, J.F. 1997J. Electroanal. Chem.4241Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chebotareva, N., Nyokong, T. 1997J. Appl. Electrochem.27975Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bockris, J.O’M., Kim, J. 1996J. Electrochem. Soc.1433801Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bouzek, K., Paidar, M., Sadlikova, A., Bergmann, H. 2001J. Appl. Electrochem.311185Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vooys, A.C.A., Santen, R.A., Veen, J.A.R. 2000J. Mol. Catal. A154203Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Horanyi, G., Rizmayer, E.M. 1983J. Electroanal. Chem.143323Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Horanyi, G., Rizmayer, E.M. 1992J. Electroanal. Chem.331897Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li, H.L., Chambers, J.Q., Hobbs, D.T. 1988J. Appl. Electrochem.18454Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dima, G.E., Vooys, A.C.A., Koper, M.T.M. 2003J. Electroanal. Chem.55415Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gootzen, J.F.E., Lefferts, L., Veen, J.A.R. 1999Appl. Catal.188127Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Genders, J., Hartsough, D., Hobbes, D. 1996J. Appl. Electrochem.261Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    L.S. Clesceri, A.E. Greenberg, R.R. Trussell, ‘Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastwater’, 17th edn. (American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 1989), pp. 4–120, 4–129 and 4–131Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Watt, G.W., Chrisp, J.D. 1952Anal. Chem.242006Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dias, F., Olojola, A.S., Jaselskis, B. 1979Talanta2647Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kerkeni, S., Lamy-Pitara, E., Barbier, J. 2002Catal. Today7535Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shimazu, K., Goto, R., Tada, K. 2002Chem. Lett.2204Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tada, K., Kawaguchi, T., Shimazu, K. 2004J. Electroanal. Chem.57293Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shimazu, K., Kawaguchi, T., Tada, K. 2002J. Electroanal. Chem.52920Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sakellaropoulos, G. 1979AIChE J.25781Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Butcher, J.C. 2000J. Comp. Appl. Math.1251Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    De, D., Kalu, E.E., Tarjan, P.P., Englehardt, J.D. 2004Chem. Eng. Technol.2756Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R.B. Bird, W.E. Stewart and E.N. Lightfoot, ‘Transport Phenomena’ (J. Wiley & Sons, 1960) 533 pp.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M., Poling, B.E. 1987The Properties of Gases and Liquids4McGraw Hill Inc.New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gootzen, J.F.E., Wonders, A.H., Visscher, W., Santen, R.A., Veen, J.A.R. 1998Electrochim. Acta431851Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    C. Polatides, M. Dortsiou and G. Kyriacou, Proceedings of 55th ISE Meeting Thessaloniki, September 2004, 333ppGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li, H., Robertson, D.H., Chambers, J., Hobbs, D. 1988J. Electrochem. Soc.1351154Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Inorganic ChemistryAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations