Mobile networks, such as Wi-Fi and networks provided by mobile operators, are present everywhere nowadays and help employees to deal with business-related issues. With accessibility to mobile networks, employees perceive that they are constantly reachable to others, which is defined as “presenteeism”. With the importance of presenteeism in mind, this study aims to explore under what conditions employees’ perceptions of presenteeism based on accessibility to mobile networks can be increased or reduced. Based on self-determination theory and normative social influence, both individual-level (i.e., need for autonomy and need for relatedness) and social-level (i.e., norm of responsiveness) boundary conditions are indicated. Data was collected from 223 employees who use mobile technology at work. Our empirical results show that need for relatedness positively moderates the relationships between accessibility to mobile networks on employees’ perceptions of presenteeism. We also found that norm of responsiveness negatively moderates the relationships between accessibility to mobile networks on employees’ perceptions of presenteeism. This study contributes to the literature on presenteeism as well offers guidelines for practitioners.
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The “presenteeism” in technology context is actually the “presenteeism through technology”. However, its core meaning is still about showing up but in different ways; that is, it is about showing up through technology. Therefore, to represent the similar core meaning and to simplify the expression, we still use the term of “presenteeism” in the technology context instead of using the term “presenteeism through technology”.
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|Employees’ perceptions of presenteeism (Ayyagari et al. 2011)||
1. The use of this mobile technology enables others to have access to me at anytime and anyplace.|
2. This mobile technology makes me accessible to others at anytime and anyplace.
3. The use of this mobile technology enables me to be in touch with others at anytime and anyplace.
4. This mobile technology enables me to access others at anytime and anyplace.
|Accessibility to mobile networks (Self-Developed)||
1. Using this mobile technology enables me to have access to mobile network (i.e., Wi-Fi, WLAN, network provided by mobile operator, etc.) at anytime and anywhere.|
2. I am able to get into mobile network (i.e., Wi-Fi, WLAN, network provided by mobile operator, etc.) with this mobile technology at anytime and anyplace.
3. This mobile technology makes mobile network (i.e., Wi-Fi, WLAN, network provided by mobile operator, etc.) accessible to me at anytime and anywhere.
4. I can use this mobile technology to gain access to mobile network (i.e., Wi-Fi, WLAN, network provided by mobile operator, etc.) at anytime and anyplace.
|Norm of Responsiveness (Self-Developed)||
1. I think the people I work with response to one another as soon as possible.|
2. I think people I work with have the expectations of getting responses from others as soon as possible.
3. I think it is a manner for people I work with to respond as soon as possible.
4. Overall, I think quick response is an implicit norm among the people I work with.
|Need for Relatedness (Sheldon and Bettencourt 2002)||
1. In job, it is important for me to have a sense of contact with people who care for me, and whom I care for.|
2. In job, it is important for me to be close and connected with other people who are important to me.
3. In job, it is important for me to have a strong sense of intimacy with the people I spent time with.
|Need for Autonomy (Sheldon and Bettencourt 2002)||
1. In job, it is important for me to feel free and choiceful.|
2. In job, it is important for me to feel wholehearted uncontrolled or unpressured.
3. In job, it is important for me to express my authentic self. *
1. I can freely set up my work schedule by using this mobile technology|
2. I set my own schedule for completing assigned tasks by using this mobile technology
3. I have a lot of freedom to decide schedule by using this mobile technology
4. I control the schedule of my job by using this mobile technology
|Invasion (Ragu-Nathan et al. 2008)||
1. I have to be in touch with my work even during my vacation due to this mobile technology.|
2. I spend less time with my family due to this mobile technology.
3. I feel my personal life is being invaded by this mobile technology.
4. I have to sacrifice my vacation and weekend to keep current on work information through this mobile technology.
Appendix B: Loadings and Cross-loadings Table
|Presenteeism||Accessibility||Invasion||Flexibility||Norm of responsiveness||Need for relatedness||Need for autonomy|
|present1||.881 Please specify the significance of the symbol BOLD emphasis reflected inside Appendix Table B by providing a description in the form of a table footnote. Otherwise, kindly amend if deemed necessary.Please help to add the following information as a table footnote:The indicators' own loadings are higher than cross loadings.||.134||.089||.071||.138||.097||.026|
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Yang, J., Yin, C. Exploring Boundary Conditions of the Impact of Accessibility to Mobile Networks on Employees’ Perceptions of Presenteeism: from Both Individual and Social Perspectives. Inf Syst Front 22, 881–895 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-019-09898-x
- Mobile technology
- Psychological needs
- Normative social influence