Information Systems Frontiers

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 253–266 | Cite as

Integrating data from user activities of social networks into public administrations

  • Marcel Rosenberger
  • Christiane Lehrer
  • Reinhard Jung


Linking social networks with government applications promises various benefits, such as improving citizens’ public engagement, increasing transparency and openness in government actions, and new or enhanced government services. The research goal is to drive innovation in governments through the integration of user activities from social networks into government applications. Instead of using third-party social media tools, we call for self-developing integration software, so that the government retains full control of the sensitive government data that is linked to social network user data. Following a design science approach, we developed a data model of user activities in social networks. Our 40 user activity types conceptualize the common fundamental data structure and are a means for comparing current features of ten prominent social networks. We find that a substantial share of user activities can be mutually integrated by wrapping social network Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).


Social networks User activities Integration Open data Government 


  1. Acker, O., Gröne, F., Akkad, F., et al. (2011). Social CRM: How companies can link into the social web of consumers. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 13, 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Hujran, O., Al-Debei, M. M., Chatfield, A., & Migdadi, M. (2015). The imperative of influencing citizen attitude toward e-government adoption and use. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archer LB (1984) Systematic method for designers. In: Cross N (ed) Developments in design methodology. Wiley, pp 57–82.Google Scholar
  4. Atig MF, Cassel S, Kaati L, Shrestha A (2014) Activity profiles in online social media. In: IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM 2014). pp 850–855.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, J., Niehaves, B., Olbrich, S., & Pfeiffer, D. (2008). Forschungsmethodik einer Integrationsdisziplin - Eine Fortführung und Ergänzung zu Lutz Heinrichs “Beitrag zur Geschichte der Wirtschaftsinformatik” aus gestaltungsorientierter Perspektive. In J. Becker, H. Krcmar, & B. Niehaves (Eds.), Wissenschaftstheorie und Gestaltungsorientierte Wirtschaftsinformatik (pp. 5–26). Münster: Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik - Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster.Google Scholar
  6. Bertot, J. C., Jaeger, P. T., & Grimes, J. M. (2010a). Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies. Government Information Quarterly, 27, 264–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertot, J. C., Jaeger, P. T., Munson, S., & Glaisyer, T. (2010b). Social media technology and government transparency. Computer, 11, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertot, J. C., Jaeger, P. T., & Hansen, D. (2012). The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges, and recommendations. Government Information Quarterly, 29, 30–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonsón, E., Royo, S., & Ratkai, M. (2014). Citizens’ engagement on local governments'’ Facebook sites. An empirical analysis: The impact of different media and content types in Western Europe. Government Information Quarterly, 32, 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bussler C (2003) Modeling Methodology. In: B2B Integration: Concepts and Architecture. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  11. Cappuccio, S., Kulkarni, S., Sohail, M., et al. (2012). Social CRM for SMEs: Current Tools and Strategy. In V. Khachidze, T. Wang, S. Siddiqui, et al. (Eds.), Contemporary Research on E-business Technology and Strategy (pp. 422–435). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chun, S. A., & Luna Reyes, L. F. (2012). Social media in government. Government Information Quarterly, 29, 441–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper, H. M. (1988). Organizing knowledge syntheses: A taxonomy of literature reviews. Knowledge in Society, 1, 104–126.Google Scholar
  14. Criado, J. I., Sandoval-Almazan, R., & Gil-Garcia, J. R. (2013). Government innovation through social media. Government Information Quarterly, 30, 319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dinter B, Lorenz A (2013) Social Business Intelligence : a Literature Review and Research Agenda. Thirty Third International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2012) 1–21.Google Scholar
  16. Eekels, J., & Roozenburg, N. F. M. (1991). A methodological comparison of the structures of scientific research and engineering design: their similarities and differences. Design Studies, 12, 197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Facebook (2015) Graph API Reference. Accessed August 25, 2015.
  18. Faulkner, P., & Runde, J. (2013). Technological Objects, Social Positions, Aand the tTransformational mModel of sSocial aActivity. MIS Quarterly, 37, 803–818.Google Scholar
  19. Fliess, S., Nadzeika, A., & Nesper, J. (2012). Understanding Patterns of Customer Engagement – How Companies Can Gain a Surplus from a Social Phenomenon. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 6, 81–93.Google Scholar
  20. Gourley D, Totty B, Sayer M, et al (2002) HTTP: The Definitive Guide. O’Reilly Media, Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Gross JL, Yellen J (2004) Handbook of Graph Theory. In: Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications. CRC Press, USA.Google Scholar
  22. Hasselbring, W. (2000). Information system integration. Communications of the ACM, 43, 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heinonen, K. (2011). Consumer activity in social media: mManagerial approaches to consumers’ social media behavior. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10, 356–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hevner, A. R., March, S. T., Park, J., & Ram, S. (2004). Design Science in Information Systems Research. MIS Quarterly, 28, 75–105.Google Scholar
  25. Jaeger PT, Bertot JC (2010) Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating User-centered and Citizen-centered E-government. In: Citizens and E-Government. IGI Global, pp 1–19.Google Scholar
  26. Jahn, B., & Kunz, W. (2012). How to transform consumers into fans of your brand. Journal of Service Management, 23, 344–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Janssen, K. (2011). The influence of the PSI directive on open government data: An overview of recent developments. Government Information Quarterly, 28, 446–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Janssen, M., Kuk, G., & Wagenaar, R. W. (2008). A survey of Web-based business models for e-government in the Netherlands. Government Information Quarterly, 25, 202–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jayachandran, S., Sharma, S., Kaufman, P., & Raman, P. (2005). The role of relational information processes and technology use in customer relationship management. Journal of Marketing, 69, 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kannabiran, G., Xavier, M. J., & Anantharaaj, A. (2005). Enabling E-Governance Through Citizen Relationship Management-Concept. Model and Applications. Journal of Services Research, 4(223–236), 238–240.Google Scholar
  31. Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53, 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons, 54, 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. King, S. F. (2007). Citizens as customers: eExploring the future of CRM in UK local government. Government Information Quarterly, 24, 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. King, S., & Cotterill, S. (2007). Transformational Government? The role of information technology in delivering citizen-centric local public services. Local Government Studies, 33, 333–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Küpper T, Lehmkuhl T, Jung R, Wieneke A (2014) Features for Social CRM Technology – An Organizational Perspective. AMCIS 2014 Proceedings 1–10.Google Scholar
  36. March, S. T., & Smith, G. F. (1995). Design and natural science research on information technology. Decision Support Systems, 15, 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mergel I (2015) Social media institutionalization in the U.S. federal government.Google Scholar
  38. Mohan S, Choi E, Min D (2008) Conceptual Modeling of Enterprise Application System Using Social Networking and Web 2.0 “Social CRM System.” 2008 International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology 237–244.Google Scholar
  39. Musser J, O’Reilly T (2007) Web 2.0 - Principles and Best Practices O’Reilly Media, Inc., Sebastopol, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  40. Nunamaker, J. F., & Chen, M. (1991). Systems Development in Information Systems Research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 7, 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oliveira, G. H. M., & Welch, E. W. (2013). Social media use in local government: Linkage of technology, task, and organizational context. Government Information Quarterly, 30, 397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Österle H, Becker J, Frank U, et al (2010) Memorandum zur gestaltungsorientierten Wirtschaftsinformatik. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaftliche ForschungZeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung 662–672.Google Scholar
  43. Pankong N, Prakancharoen S, Buranarach M (2012) A combined semantic social network analysis framework to integrate social media data. Proceedings of the 2012 4th International Conference on Knowledge and Smart Technology, KST 2012 37–42.Google Scholar
  44. Peffers K, Tuunanen T, Gengler CE, et al (2006) The Design Science Research Process: A Model for Producing and Presenting Information Systems Research. the Proceedings of Design Research in Information Systems and Technology DESRIST’06 24:83–106.Google Scholar
  45. Peffers, K., Tuunanen, T., Rothenberger, M. A., & Chatterjee, S. (2007). A Design Science Research Methodology for Information Systems Research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24, 45–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pirolli, P., Preece, J., & Shneiderman, B. (2010). Cyberinfrastructure for Social Action on National Priorities. Computer, 43, 20–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Porter J (2010) Designing for the social web. Peachpit Press.Google Scholar
  48. Reddik, C. G. (2010). Impact of cCitizen rRelationship mManagement (CRM) on gGovernment: eEvidence from U.S. Local Governments. Journal of E-Governance, 33, 88–99.Google Scholar
  49. Reinhold O, Alt R (2011) Analytical Social CRM: Concept and Tool Support. In: Proceedings 24th Bled eConference. pp 226–241.Google Scholar
  50. Richthammer, C., Netter, M., Riesner, M., et al. (2014). Taxonomy of social network data types. EURASIP Journal on Information Security, 2014, 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Roberts A (2006) Government Secrecy in the Information Age.Google Scholar
  52. Rosch, E., & Mervis, C. B. (1975). Family resemblances: Studies in the internal structure of categories. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 573–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rosemann M, Eggert M, Voigt M, Beverungen D (2012) Leveraging Social Network Data for Analytical CRM Strategies - The Introductioin of Social BI.Google Scholar
  54. Rosenberger M, Lehmkuhl T, Jung R (2015) Conceptualising and Exploring User Activities in Social Media. In: Janssen M, Mäntymäki M, Hidders J, et al. (eds) Open and Big Data Management and Innovation. Springer International Publishing, pp 107–118.Google Scholar
  55. Rosenberger, M., Lehrer, C., & Jung, R. (2016). A System Architecture for Integrating User Activities in Social Networks with Customer Relationship Management. In V. Nissen, D. Stelzer, S. Straßburger, & D. Fischer (Eds.), Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI) (pp. 1179–1190). Ilmenau: Universitätsverlag Ilmenau.Google Scholar
  56. Rossi M, Sein MK (2003) Design research workshop: a proactive research approach. In: 26th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia. The IRIS Association, Haikko Finland.Google Scholar
  57. Sarkar A, Waxman R, Cohoon JP (1995) High-Level System Modeling. In: Bergé J-M, Levia O, Rouillard J (eds) High-Level System Modeling: Specification Languages. Springer US, pp 1–34.Google Scholar
  58. Sarner, A., Thompson, E., Sussin, J., et al. (2012). Magic Quadrant for Social CRM. Gartner Research September, 1–20.Google Scholar
  59. Singh, N., Lehnert, K., & Bostick, K. (2012). Global Social Media Usage : Insights Into Reaching Consumers Worldwide. Thunderbird International Business Review, 54, 683–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sivarajah U, Irani Z, Weerakkody V (2015) Evaluating the use and impact of Web 2.0 technologies in local government.Google Scholar
  61. Smith, T. (2009). Conference notes – The social media revolution. International Journal of Market Research, 51, 559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith M, Shneiderman B, Milic-Frayling N, et al (2009) Analyzing (Social Media) Networks with NodeXL. In: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on Communities and technologies. ACM, pp 255–264.Google Scholar
  63. Spagnoletti P, Resca A (2012) A Design Theory for IT Supporting Online Communities. 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 4082–4091.Google Scholar
  64. Statista (2014) Leading social networks worldwide as of June 2014, ranked by number of active users. Accessed July 14, 2014.
  65. Takeda, H., Veerkamp, P., Tomiyama, T., & Yoshikawam, H. (1990). Modeling Design Processes. AI Magazine, 11(4), 37–48.Google Scholar
  66. Trainor, K. J., Andzulis, J.(. M.)., Rapp, A., & Agnihotri, R. (2014). Social media technology usage and customer relationship performance: A capabilities-based examination of social CRM. Journal of Business Research, 67, 1201–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Valos, M., Polonsky, M. J., Mavondo, F., & Lipscomb, J. (2015). Senior marketers’ insights into the challenges of social media implementation in large organisations: assessing generic and electronic orientation models as potential solutions. Journal of Marketing Management, 31, 713–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. van der Aalst, W. M. P., Reijers, H. a., & Song, M. (2005). Discovering Social Networks from Event Logs. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 14, 549–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. vom Brocke J, Simons A, Niehaves B, et al (2009) Reconstructing the Giant: On the Importance of Rigour in Documenting the Literature Search Process. In: 17th European Conference on Information Systems.Google Scholar
  70. W3C Social Web Working Group (2015) Social Web Working Group (SocialWG) Home Page. Accessed August 03, 2015.
  71. Walls, J., Widmeyer, G., & El Sawy, O. (1992). Building an Information System Design Theory for Vigilant EIS. Information Systems Research, 3, 36–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Webster, J., & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analyzing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review. MIS Quarterly, 26, xiii–xxiii.Google Scholar
  73. Williams, D. S. (2014). Connected CRM: implementing a data-driven, customer-centric business strategy. New Jersey: Hoboken.Google Scholar
  74. Winter, R., & Baskerville, R. (2010). Methodik der WirtschaftsinformatikWirtschaftsinformatik. Wirtschaftsinformatik, 52, 257–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Woerndl W, Manhardt A, Schulze F, Prinz V (2011) Logging User Activities and Sensor Data on Mobile Devices. In: Atzmueller, M, Hotho A, Strohmaier M, Chin A (eds) Analysis of Social Media and Ubiquitous Data. Springer, pp 1–19.Google Scholar
  76. Woodcock, N., Broomfield, N., Downer, G., & McKee, S. (2011). The evolving data architecture of social customer relationship management. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 12, 249–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yang, C. C., Tang, X., Dai, Q., et al. (2013). Identifying Implicit and Explicit Relationships Through User Activities in Social Media. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 18, 73–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yu Y, Tang S, Zimmermann R, Aizawa K (2014) Empirical Observation of User Activities. In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Internet-Scale Multimedia Management - WISMM ‘’14. pp 31–34.Google Scholar
  79. Zuiderwijk A, Janssen M, Dwivedi YK (2015) Acceptance and use predictors of open data technologies: Drawing upon the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Government Information Quarterly.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcel Rosenberger
    • 1
  • Christiane Lehrer
    • 1
  • Reinhard Jung
    • 1
  1. 1.University of St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations