Skip to main content
Log in

The outcomes of primary pars plana vitrectomy alone as a first surgical procedure in pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

International Ophthalmology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Cite this article



To evaluate the characteristics and analyze the results of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) as the first surgery due to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in pediatric age.


The records of pediatric patients who underwent PPV alone due to RRD were reviewed retrospectively. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) values were recorded before and after the surgery. Complications during and after the operation, postoperative recurrences were followed-up.


One hundred and six patients included in the study were followed-up for an average of 24.20 ± 11.38 months. The final mean BCVA showed a statistically significant improvement compared to the initial mean BCVA (p < 0.001). During the postoperative follow-up period, recurrent retinal detachment was seen in 31.1% of patients. Anatomical success was achieved at a rate of 68.9% after the first surgery and increased to 95.3% after repeated operations (in 78.3% without any tamponade). Both anatomical and functional success of patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) grade C or worse and patients with macula-off retinal status were poorer (each p value < 0.05). The effect of the etiological factor on anatomical and functional success was not significant (each p value > 0.05).


Satisfactory results can be obtained with PPV alone in pediatric RRD. However, it should be noted that postoperative complications and recurrences occur at a high rate and that repeated surgeries are often required. The presence of PVR and macular involvement are seen as negative prognostic factors to the success of surgery.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author, upon reasonable request.


  1. Butler TK, Kiel AW, Orr GM (2001) Anatomical and visual outcome of retinal detachment surgery in children. Br J Ophthalmol 85:1437–1439

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Wang NK, Tsai CH, Chen YP et al (2005) Pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in East Asians. Ophthalmology 112:1890–1895

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Soheilian M, Ramezani A, Malihi M et al (2009) Clinical features and surgical outcomes of pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Retina 29:545–551

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Soliman MM, Macky TA (2011) Pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Int Ophthalmol Clin 51:147–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Smith JM, Ward LT, Townsend JH et al (2019) Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in children: clinical factors predictive of successful surgical repair. Ophthalmology 126:1263–1270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Retina Society Terminology Committee (1983) Classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology 90:121–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Gonzales CR, Singh S, Yu F, Kreiger AE, Gupta A, Schwartz SD (2008) Pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: clinical features and surgical outcomes. Retina 28:847–852

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Eibenberger K, Sacu S, Rezar-Dreindl S, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Stifter E, Georgopoulos M (2021) Clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of pediatric and early adulthood retinal detachment. Eur J Ophthalmol 31:1367–1374

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Sin HPY, Yip WWK, Chan VCK, Young AL (2017) Etiologies and surgical outcomes of pediatric retinal detachment in Hong Kong. Int Ophthalmol 37:875–883

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Rejdak R, Nowakowska D, Wrona K, Maciejewski R, Junemann AG, Nowomiejska K (2017) Outcomes of vitrectomy in pediatric retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. J Ophthalmol.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Huang YC, Chu YC, Wang NK et al (2019) Impact of etiology on the outcome of pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Retina 39:118–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Gurler B, Coskun E, Öner V, Comez A, Erbagci I (2016) Clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Int Ophthalmol 36:521–525

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Chang PY, Yang CM, Yang CH et al (2005) Clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Taiwan. Am J Ophthalmol 139:1067–1072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Zhang Y, Wildsoet CF (2015) RPE and choroid mechanisms underlying ocular growth and myopia. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 134:221–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Manayath GJ, Arora S, Parikh H, Shah PK, Tiwari S, Narendran V (2016) Is myopia a protective factor against central serous chorioretinopathy? Int J Ophthalmol 9:266–270

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Sarrazin L, Averbukh E, Halpert M, Hemo I, Rumelt S (2004) Traumatic pediatric retinal detachment: a comparison between open and closed globe injuries. Am J Ophthalmol 137:1042–1049

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


No funding was received.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Burcu Kemer Atik.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethical approval was received from the University of Health Sciences Turkey, Gaziosmanpasa Training and Research Hospital Ethics Committee (164; 23.09.2020).

Consent to participate

Informed consent was obtained from all patients and/or parents included in the study.

Consent for publication

Patients and/or parents signed informed consent regarding publishing their data.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kemer Atik, B., Erdogan, G., Kirmaci Kabakci, A. et al. The outcomes of primary pars plana vitrectomy alone as a first surgical procedure in pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Int Ophthalmol 42, 3469–3478 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: