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Can dynamic and static pupillary responses be used as an indicator of autonomic dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome?

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Abstract

Purpose

We aimed to reveal whether static and dynamic pupillary responses can be used for the detection of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).

Methods

We included in this study patients with OSAS, who were divided into three groups according to the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) (group 1, mild [n = 20]; group 2, moderate [n = 20]; and group 3, severe [n = 20]), and healthy controls (group 4, n = 20). Pupillary responses were measured using a pupillometry system.

Results

Static (mesopic PD, P = 0.0019; low photopic PD, P = 0.001) and dynamic pupil responses (resting diameter, P = 0.004; amplitude of pupil contraction, P < 0.001; duration of pupil contraction, P = 0.022; velocity of pupil contraction, P = 0.001; and velocity of pupil dilation, P = 0.012) were affected in patients with different OSAS severities. Also, AHI was negatively correlated with mesopic PD (P = 0.008), low photopic PD (P = 0.003), resting diameter (P = 0.001), amplitude of pupil contraction (P < 0.001), duration of pupil contraction (P = 0.011), velocity of pupil contraction (P < 0.001), and velocity of pupil dilation (P = 0.001).

Conclusion

We detected pupil responses innervated by the ANS were affected in the OSAS patients. This effect was more significant in the severe OSAS patients. Therefore, the pupillometry system can be an easily applicable, noninvasive method to detect ANS dysfunction in the OSA patients.

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Correspondence to Seyfettin Erdem.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Erdem, S., Yilmaz, S., Karahan, M. et al. Can dynamic and static pupillary responses be used as an indicator of autonomic dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome?. Int Ophthalmol 41, 2555–2563 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-01814-0

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-01814-0

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