Predictive value of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features in assessment of visual prognosis in eyes with acute welding arc maculopathy

  • Chunxia Zhang
  • Guangfu Dang
  • Tianmei Zhao
  • DongLin Wang
  • Yan Su
  • Yi Qu
Original Paper



To observe spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features and to determine whether baseline OCT features can be used as predictors of visual acuity outcome in eyes with acute welding arc maculopathy.


This retrospective study enrolled twenty-two eyes of eleven subjects with acute welding arc maculopathy. All subjects were evaluated by SD-OCT at baseline and final visit. The involved parameters included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), the length of ellipsoid zone (EZ) defects, the greatest linear dimension (GLD) of outer retinal lesions, EZ reflectivity and relative EZ reflectivity (defined as the ratio of EZ reflectivity to retinal pigment epithelium reflectivity on OCT).


Acute welding arc maculopathy was presented as abnormal hyperreflectivity, hyporeflectivity and defects of outer retinal layer in fovea on OCT. Compared with baseline, BCVA improved significantly accompanied by decreased GLD of outer retinal lesions and the length of EZ defects at final visit (P = 0.0004, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). No significant changes were shown on CMT (P = 0.248). In multivariate regression analysis, final BCVA was associated with baseline BCVA and the length of EZ defects (P = 0.012 and P = 0.045, respectively). However, EZ reflectivity and relative EZ reflectivity were not associated with final BCVA (P > 0.05).


In conclusion, SD-OCT images clearly reveal morphological changes in outer retinal layer in acute welding arc maculopathy. The baseline BCVA and length of EZ defects are the strongest predictors of final BCVA.


Welding arc maculopathy Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography Ellipsoid zone Visual acuity 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study has been approved by the local institutional ethics committee of Jinan Mingshui Eye Hospital and has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


  1. 1.
    Houly JR, Veloso CE, Passos E, Nehemy MB (2017) Quantitative analysis of external limiting membrane, ellipsoid zone and interdigitation zone defects in patients with macular holes. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 255(7):1297–1306. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mahindrakar A, Toshniwal S, Doongerwala MI, Anthony H (2013) Spectralis optical coherence tomography findings in Welder’s maculopathy. Indian J Ophthalmol 61(5):238–240. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jabbarpoor Bonyadi MH (2013) Early and late spectral domain optical coherence tomography features of acute welding maculopathy. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 8(4):391–392PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yang X, Shao D, Ding X, Liang X, Yang J, Li J (2012) Chronic phototoxic maculopathy caused by welding arc in occupational welders. Can J Ophthalmol 47(1):45–50. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hiesch A, Berrot A, Quintyn JC (2011) Unilateral photic maculopathy caused by welder’s flash. J Fr Ophtalmol 34(1):37 e31–37 e37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Iacono P, Battaglia Parodi M, Iuliano L, Bandello F (2018) How vitreomacular interface modifies the efficacy of anti-vegf therapy for myopic choroidal neovascularization. Retina 38(1):84–90. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grewal DS, Reddy V, Mahmoud TH (2015) Assessment of foveal microstructure and foveal lucencies using optical coherence tomography radial scans following macular hole surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 160(5):990–999 e991. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cheng Y, Li Y, Huang X, Qu Y (2017) Application of optical coherence tomography angiography to assess anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in myopic choroidal neovascularization. Retina. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Flores M, Debellemaniere G, Bully A, Meillat M, Tumahai P, Delbosc B, Saleh M (2015) Reflectivity of the outer retina on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as a predictor of photoreceptor cone density. Am J Ophthalmol 160(3):588–595 e582. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bae K, Cho GE, Yoon JM, Kang SW (2016) Optical coherence tomographic features and prognosis of pneumatic displacement for submacular hemorrhage. PLoS ONE 11(12):e0168474. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Staurenghi G, Sadda S, Chakravarthy U, Spaide RF (2014) Proposed lexicon for anatomic landmarks in normal posterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: the IN*OCT consensus. Ophthalmology 121(8):1572–1578. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Srinivasan VJ, Monson BK, Wojtkowski M, Bilonick RA, Gorczynska I, Chen R, Duker JS, Schuman JS, Fujimoto JG (2008) Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49(4):1571–1579. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oster SF, Mojana F, Brar M, Yuson RM, Cheng L, Freeman WR (2010) Disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment layer on spectral domain-optical coherence tomography is a predictor of poor visual acuity in patients with epiretinal membranes. Retina 30(5):713–718. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maheshwary AS, Oster SF, Yuson RM, Cheng L, Mojana F, Freeman WR (2010) The association between percent disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment-outer segment junction and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol 150(1):63–67 e61. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Landa G, Su E, Garcia PM, Seiple WH, Rosen RB (2011) Inner segment-outer segment junctional layer integrity and corresponding retinal sensitivity in dry and wet forms of age-related macular degeneration. Retina 31(2):364–370. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wolf-Schnurrbusch UE, Ghanem R, Rothenbuehler SP, Enzmann V, Framme C, Wolf S (2011) Predictors of short-term visual outcome after anti-VEGF therapy of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(6):3334–3337. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chatziralli I, Theodossiadis G, Chatzirallis A, Parikakis E, Mitropoulos P, Theodossiadis P (2017) Ranibizumab for retinal vein occlusion: predictive factors and long-term outcomes in real-life data. Retina. Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barthelmes D, Sutter FK, Kurz-Levin MM, Bosch MM, Helbig H, Niemeyer G, Fleischhauer JC (2006) Quantitative analysis of OCT characteristics in patients with achromatopsia and blue-cone monochromatism. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47(3):1161–1166. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mataftsi A, Schorderet DF, Chachoua L, Boussalah M, Nouri MT, Barthelmes D, Borruat FX, Munier FL (2007) Novel TULP1 mutation causing leber congenital amaurosis or early onset retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48(11):5160–5167. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barthelmes D, Gillies MC, Sutter FK (2008) Quantitative OCT analysis of idiopathic perifoveal telangiectasia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49(5):2156–2162. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chunxia Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guangfu Dang
    • 3
  • Tianmei Zhao
    • 2
  • DongLin Wang
    • 2
  • Yan Su
    • 2
  • Yi Qu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeriatricsQiLu Hospital of Shandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyJinan Mingshui Eye HospitalJinanChina
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyQianfoshan Hospital Affiliated with Shandong UniversityJinanChina

Personalised recommendations