The impact of ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis on the health-related quality of life and the functional ability of black Africans
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Objectives To determine the patterns, predictors and overall impact of ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the health-related quality of life and disability index.
A total of 50 Nigerian patients with RA were studied. Full ocular evaluation was done to determine the presence of each defined ocular manifestation of RA. All patients completed the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) questionnaires.
The mean ± SD age of the patients was 47.2 ± 12.5 years. A total of 42 cases of ocular diseases were found in 23 (46%) patients. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was found in 15 (30%) patients; cataract, 13 (26%); scleritis/episcleritis, 4 (8%); disk edema, 4 (8%); glaucoma, 3 (6%); ulcerative keratitis, 1 (2%); vitreitis, 1 (2%); and macula edema, 1 (2%) patient. There is an association of the presence of ocular manifestations with the physical component summary (PCS) [T = − 3.398, P = 0.001] and the mental component summary (MCS) [T = − 2.616, 0.012] of the SF-36 but not with the HAQ-DI (T = 1.685, 0.099). Following multiple regression analysis, the predictors of the presence of ocular manifestations were age greater than 45 years and positive anti-citrullinated protein antibody. Following linear regression analyses, Steinbrocker’s functional class independently predicted the PCS while both Steinbrocker’s functional class and female sex predicted the MCS.
The development of ocular disorders associated with RA is associated with a significant negative impact on the quality of life of the patients.
KeywordsRheumatoid arthritis Ocular manifestations Quality of life
Anti-citrullinated protein antibody
Clinical Disease Activity Index
Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index
Health-related quality of life
Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey
Physical component summary
Mental component summary
Biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drug
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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