The impact of ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis on the health-related quality of life and the functional ability of black Africans

  • Richard Oluyinka Akintayo
  • Olufemi Oladipo Adelowo
  • Ochuko Egajifo
  • Rukayyah Abisoye Popoola
  • Gbenga Joshua Odunlami
  • Airenakho Emorinken
  • Babatunde Hakeem Olaosebikan
Original Paper


Objectives To determine the patterns, predictors and overall impact of ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the health-related quality of life and disability index.


A total of 50 Nigerian patients with RA were studied. Full ocular evaluation was done to determine the presence of each defined ocular manifestation of RA. All patients completed the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) questionnaires.


The mean ± SD age of the patients was 47.2 ± 12.5 years. A total of 42 cases of ocular diseases were found in 23 (46%) patients. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was found in 15 (30%) patients; cataract, 13 (26%); scleritis/episcleritis, 4 (8%); disk edema, 4 (8%); glaucoma, 3 (6%); ulcerative keratitis, 1 (2%); vitreitis, 1 (2%); and macula edema, 1 (2%) patient. There is an association of the presence of ocular manifestations with the physical component summary (PCS) [T = − 3.398, P = 0.001] and the mental component summary (MCS) [T = − 2.616, 0.012] of the SF-36 but not with the HAQ-DI (T = 1.685, 0.099). Following multiple regression analysis, the predictors of the presence of ocular manifestations were age greater than 45 years and positive anti-citrullinated protein antibody. Following linear regression analyses, Steinbrocker’s functional class independently predicted the PCS while both Steinbrocker’s functional class and female sex predicted the MCS.


The development of ocular disorders associated with RA is associated with a significant negative impact on the quality of life of the patients.


Rheumatoid arthritis Ocular manifestations Quality of life 



Rheumatoid arthritis


Keratoconjunctivitis sicca


Anti-citrullinated protein antibody


Clinical Disease Activity Index


Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index


Health-related quality of life


Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey


Physical functioning


Role physical


Bodily pain


General health




Social functioning


Role emotion


Mental health


Physical component summary


Mental component summary






Biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drug


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Oluyinka Akintayo
    • 1
  • Olufemi Oladipo Adelowo
    • 2
  • Ochuko Egajifo
    • 3
  • Rukayyah Abisoye Popoola
    • 3
  • Gbenga Joshua Odunlami
    • 4
  • Airenakho Emorinken
    • 5
  • Babatunde Hakeem Olaosebikan
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology, Department of MedicineUniversity of Ilorin Teaching HospitalIlorinNigeria
  2. 2.Division of Rheumatology, Department of MedicineLagos State University Teaching HospitalIkejaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyLagos State University Teaching HospitalIkejaNigeria
  4. 4.Division of Rheumatology, Department of MedicineObafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital ComplexIfeNigeria
  5. 5.Division of Rheumatology, Department of MedicineIrrua Specialist HospitalIrruaNigeria

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