The quality of a Web search engine is influenced by several factors, including coverage and the freshness of the content gathered by the web crawler. Focusing particularly on freshness, one key challenge is to estimate the likelihood of a previously crawled webpage being modified. Such estimates are used to define the order in which those pages should be visited, and thus, can be exploited to reduce the cost of monitoring crawled webpages for keeping updated versions. We here present a Genetic Programming framework, called \( GP4C \)—Genetic Programming for Crawling, to generate score functions that produce accurate rankings of pages regarding their probabilities of having been modified. We compare \( GP4C \) with state-of-the-art methods using a large dataset of webpages crawled from the Brazilian Web. Our evaluation includes multiple performance metrics and several variations of our framework, built from exploring different sets of terminals and fitness functions. In particular, we evaluate \( GP4C \) using the ChangeRate and Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) metrics as both objective function and evaluation metric. We show that, in comparison with ChangeRate, NDCG has the ability of better evaluating the effectiveness of scheduling strategies, since it is able to take the ranking produced by the scheduling into account.
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We note that in our preliminary version of this work (Santos et al. 2013), only \(n, X\) and \(t\) were used as terminals.
The BRDC’12 dataset is publicly available at http://www.latin.dcc.ufmg.br/brdc12.html.
One interesting experiment consists of using inaccurate statistics about the pages to produce the schedulings. We note that such inaccuracies would affect all methods, including the baselines. Thus, we conjecture that our main conclusions remain the same, although a careful investigation must be conducted to support this claim. Such study is left for future work.
Those peaks can also be noted in Fig. 3.
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We thank the partial support given by the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology for the Web (Grant MCT-CNPq 573871/2008-6), Project MinGroup (Grant CNPq-CT-Amazônia 575553/2008-1) and authors’ individual grants and scholarships from CNPq and FAPEMIG.
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Santos, A.S.R., de Carvalho, C.R., Almeida, J.M. et al. A genetic programming framework to schedule webpage updates. Inf Retrieval J 18, 73–94 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10791-014-9248-5
- Web crawling
- Scheduling functions
- Genetic Programming