Alan H. Goldman, Reasons from Within: Desires and Values
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It’s not terribly controversial that human beings have reasons to act. Nor is it all that controversial that some things are valuable. Difficulties emerge, however, when we try to identify the source of reasons, and the foundation of value. Some philosophers argue that reasons and values depend for their existence on certain aspects of human psychology, like states of desire. Such philosophers are internalists about the existence of reasons, and subjectivists about value. Others say that reasons are independent of human psychology, and that value is an objective feature of reality. These philosophers are externalists about the existence of reasons, and objectivists about value. The controversies arise when we try to choose from these alternative options.
Alan H. Goldman’s Reasons from Withinprovides a comprehensive defence of internalism and subjectivism. Goldman maintains that these positions are preferable to the externalism and objectivism, which have significant metaphysical and...