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Anti-inflammatory effects of Chrysophyllum cainito fruit extract in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages

Abstract

The present paper sought to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract (ME), hexane–ethyl acetate fraction E (FE) found in Chrysophyllum cainito fruits (CCF), as well the lupeol acetate (LA) obtained from FE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. The macrophages were treated with ME, FE or LA at various concentrations and the viability of cells was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Production of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, as well as the nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels was determined using macrophages treated with ME, FE or LA at various concentrations and stimulated with LPS as an in vitro model. Afterwards, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects in vivo using the TPA-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in mice and production of inflammatory mediators was estimated in serum samples. The results showed that the ME, FE and LA from fruits, FE and LA were able to trigger an inhibition in NO and H2O2 levels, as well as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α released by macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. LA from C. cainito fruits was found to significantly attenuate carrageenan-induced paw edema and TPA-induced ear edema. Therefore, the results suggest ME, FE and LA isolated from C. cainito fruits have anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages without affecting cell viability.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the “Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia” (CONACYT): “Fondo Sectorial de Investigación para la Educación” (CB-2013-01/221886).

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Correspondence to Rubén M. Carballo.

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The present study was carried out in accordance with the principles and guidelines of the World Medical Association Statement on Animal Use in Biomedical Research and the Mexican Official Standard for Animal Care and Handing (NOM-062-ZOO-1999) and was approved by the ethics committee of the Agricultural and Biological Sciences Campus (CB-CCBA-M-2016-005) at the Autonomous University of Yucatán, Mexico.

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Arana-Argáez, V.E., Mena-Rejón, G.J., Torres-Romero, J.C. et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of Chrysophyllum cainito fruit extract in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Inflammopharmacol 29, 513–524 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-021-00795-x

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Keywords

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Chrysophyllum cainito
  • Macrophages
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Lupeol acetate