, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 1051–1055 | Cite as

Probiotic mixture of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium alleviates systemic adiposity and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats through Gpr109a and the commensal metabolite butyrate

  • Yinji Liang
  • Chenli Lin
  • Yupei Zhang
  • Yuanjun Deng
  • Chan Liu
  • Qinhe Yang
Short Communication



The study explored the systemic adiposity and inflammation through Gpr109a and the commensal metabolite butyrate during the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats with the probiotic mixture of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium for 16 weeks.


Fifteen male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups of five rats each: normal control group (basal feed), high-fat diet (HFD) feeding group (83% basal feed + 10% lard oil + 5% sucrose + 1.5% cholesterol + 0.5% cholate), and probiotic mixture intervention group (HFD + 0.6 g kg−1 day−1 probiotic mixture). Body composition, serum lipids, serum inflammatory markers, Gpr109a, and the commensal metabolite butyrate were assessed.


Compared with HFD group, probiotic mixture significantly reduced body weight and the levels of serum FFA, TG, ALT, IL-1β, and IL-18 (P < 0.05). The levels of Gpr109a and the commensal metabolite butyrate also changed significantly (P < 0.05).


Probiotic mixture might inhibit systemic adiposity and inflammation through Gpr109a and the commensal metabolite butyrate in response to the insult of HFD.


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Probiotics Gpr109a Adiposity Inflammation 



This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81774165 and 81573844), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong in China (No. 2016A030313824), the Traditional Chinese Medicine Bureau of Guangdong in China (No. 20161065), and the National Health and Family Planning Commission of Guangdong in China (Nos. A2016583 and A2017228).


  1. Endo H, Niioka M, Kobayashi N, Tanaka M, Watanabe T (2013) Butyrate-producing probiotics reduce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression in rats: new insight into the probiotics for the gut-liver axis. PLoS One 8:e63388CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Feingold KR, Moser A, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C (2014) Inflammation stimulates niacin receptor (GPR109A/HCA2) expression in adipose tissue and macrophages. J Lipid Res 55:2501–2508CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Koh A, De Vadder F, Kovatcheva-Datchary P, Backhed F (2016) From dietary fiber to host physiology: short-chain fatty acids as key bacterial metabolites. Cell 165:1332–1345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Li Z, Li X, Lin S, Chen Y, Ma S, Fu Y, Wei C, Xu W (2017) Nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in MIN6 pancreatic beta cells. Ann Clin Lab Sci 47:729–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Liang Y, Liang S, Zhang Y, Deng Y, He Y, Chen Y, Liu C, Lin C, Yang Q (2018) Oral administration of compound probiotics ameliorates HFD-induced gut microbe dysbiosis and chronic metabolic inflammation via the G protein-coupled receptor 43 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. Google Scholar
  6. Lu Y, Fan C, Li P, Lu Y, Chang X, Qi K (2016) Short chain fatty acids prevent high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice by regulating G protein-coupled receptors and gut microbiota. Sci Rep 6:37589CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Tunaru S, Kero J, Schaub A, Wufka C, Blaukat A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S (2003) PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect. Nat Med 9:352–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Wang H, Li SH, Zhang Y, Guan J, Wu YM, Wang Q, Luo XQ (2015) Therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of Zhenrenyangzang decoction in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis. Int J Clin Exp Med 8:15254–15261PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Xu X, Lin S, Chen Y, Li X, Ma S, Fu Y, Wei C, Wang C, Xu W (2017) The effect of metformin on the expression of GPR109A, NF-kappaB and IL-1beta in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Clin Lab Sci 47:556–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Zechner R, Strauss JG, Haemmerle G, Lass A, Zimmermann R (2005) Lipolysis: pathway under construction. Curr Opin Lipidol 16:333–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Zhao G, Nyman M, Jonsson JA (2006) Rapid determination of short-chain fatty acids in colonic contents and faeces of humans and rats by acidified water-extraction and direct-injection gas chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr BMC 20:674–682CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of NursingJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Basic MedicineJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.School of Traditional Chinese MedicineJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations