, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 1125–1131 | Cite as

A mechanistic approach to explore the neuroprotective potential of zonisamide in seizures

  • Baldeep Kumar
  • Bikash Medhi
  • Manish Modi
  • Biman Saikia
  • Savita Verma Attri
  • Ajay Patial
Original Article



Epilepsy, a disease of the brain, is one of the most common serious neurological conditions. It is associated with a group of processes which alter energy metabolism, interrupt cellular ionic homeostasis, cause receptor dysfunction, activate inflammatory cascade, alter neurotransmitter uptake and result in neuronal damage. The increasing knowledge and understanding about the basis of neuronal changes in epilepsy lead to investigate the mechanistic pathway of neuroprotective agents in epilepsy. With this background, the present study is designed to reveal the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective potential of zonisamide in epilepsy.


Seizure-induced neuronal damage was produced by maximal electroshock seizures in animals. The oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory and apoptotic markers were assessed in the brain tissue of animals.

Results and discussion

The present findings revealed that zonisamide treatment prevented the development of seizures in animals. Seizures-induced free radicals production and neuroinflammation were markedly ameliorated by zonisamide administration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the mechanisms behind the strong neuroprotective potential of zonisamide against seizures by attenuating the oxidative stress, inflammatory cascade and neuronal death associated with progression of seizures. It can be further developed as a neuroprotective agent for epilepsy and other neurodegenerative disorders.


Seizure Zonisamide Epilepsy Neuroinflammation Oxidative stress Cytokines 



The authors would like to thank the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, for providing assistance in the form of Senior Research Fellowship to Dr. Baldeep Kumar. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Author contributions

Designed the study: BK, BM, BS and MM. Performed experiments: BK. Acquired and analyzed data: BK, SVA and AP. Wrote and checked the manuscript: BK, BM and MM.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Research Block-BPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)ChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Department of ImmunopathologyPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia
  5. 5.Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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