, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 951–961 | Cite as

Effect of early natal supplementation of paracetamol on attenuation of exotoxin/endotoxin induced pyrexia and precipitation of autistic like features in albino rats

  • Abdulaziz S. Saeedan
  • Indu Singh
  • Mohd. Nazam Ansari
  • Manjari Singh
  • Jitendra K. Rawat
  • Uma Devi
  • Swetlana Gautam
  • Rajnish K. Yadav
  • Gaurav KaithwasEmail author
Original Article


The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that paracetamol (PCM) can precipitate autistic like features when used to counteract vaccine-induced fever using experimental rat pups. The pups were treated with measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria tetanus and pertussis (DPT) vaccines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with subsequent PCM treatment. The pups were evaluated for postnatal growth (weight gain, eye opening) and behavior alterations (swimming performance, olfactory discrimination, negative geotaxis, nociception, and locomotor activity) by performing battery of neurobehavioral test. Significant correlation was observed between social behavioral domains (nociception, anxiety and motor coordination) and pro-inflammatory load in the pups when treated with MMR/LPS along with PCM. A significant change in pro and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) markers were observed in rats treated with PCM, MMR, LPS, DPS alone or in combination with MMR, LPS and DPT (5128.6 ± 0.000, 15,488 ± 0.000***, 9661.1 ± 157.29***a, 15,312 ± 249.29***, 10,471 ± 0.00***a, 16,789 ± 273.34*** and 12,882 ± 0.00***a). Pups were also scrutinized for the markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and histopathologically. All the treatment groups showed significant alteration in the behavioral changes, oxidative markers (TBARS-in control-4.33 ± 0.02, PCM-9.42 ± 0.18***, MMR-5.27 ± 0.15***, MMR + PCM-8.57 ± 0.18*** a, LPS-6.84 ± 0.10***, LPS + PCM-4.51 ± 0.30***a, DPT-5.68 ± 0.12***, DPT + PCM-7.26 ± 0.18***a) and inflammatory markers without following any specific treatment. These observation could be accorded to variable phenotypes of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs).


Autism Lipopolysaccharide Cyclooxygenase Interleukin Lipoxygenase Paracetamol 



Author would like to acknowledge the UGC for granting the fellowship to IS, MS, JKR, SG, SD, and RKY.

Author contributions

ASS, IS: Performed the animal experimentation, SG, MS, JKR, UD: Performed the biochemical parameters and histopathology, RKY: Statistical analysis, MNA: Final draft of revised manuscript, GK: Perceived the idea of study, final proof reading of manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdulaziz S. Saeedan
    • 1
  • Indu Singh
    • 2
  • Mohd. Nazam Ansari
    • 1
  • Manjari Singh
    • 2
  • Jitendra K. Rawat
    • 2
  • Uma Devi
    • 3
  • Swetlana Gautam
    • 2
  • Rajnish K. Yadav
    • 2
  • Gaurav Kaithwas
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, College of PharmacyPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAl-KharjKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Biosciences and BiotechnologyBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Medical Sciences Indigenous and Alternative MedicineSHIATS-Deemed To Be University, Formerly Allahabad Agricultural InstituteAllahabadIndia

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