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Inflammopharmacology

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 779–791 | Cite as

Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract pretreatment inhibits liver and spleen injury in a mouse model of sepsis via anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects

  • Mohamed A. Dkhil
  • Saleh Al-Quraishy
  • Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim
Original Article

Abstract

Sepsis is a systemic response to infection that can result in acute hepatic and splenic damage. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) is a wild tree used as a medicinal plant by ancient Egyptians. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying its effects on sepsis. The current study investigated the protective effects of a Z. spina-christi leaf extract (ZSCLE) on liver and spleen damage in a male C57BL/6 mouse model of sepsis, induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Prior to CLP, ZSCLE was administered daily for five consecutive days via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg. The mice were euthanized 9 h after CLP, and oxidative stress markers were measured (myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and reduced glutathione). In addition, we investigated histological changes, anti-oxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase), cytokine levels, protein expression of nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and mRNA levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (8, 9, and 14), iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β. Our results indicated that ZSCLE significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sepsis-induced liver and spleen injury. These results suggest that ZSCLE could provide a therapeutic agent for sepsis by inducing anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects.

Keywords

Ziziphus spina-christi Sepsis Mitogen-activated protein kinase Nuclear factor-κB Anti-oxidant 

Abbreviations

CLP

Cecal ligation and puncture

GAPDH

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Glutathione

IL-1β

Interleukin-1β

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MPO

Myeloperoxidase

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MOD

Multi-organ dysfunction

NADPH

Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-κB

NO

Nitric oxide

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

ZSC

Ziziphus spina-christi (L.)

ZSCLE

Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to express their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this study through the research group project No. RG-198.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Supplementary material

10787_2017_439_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (190 kb)
Supplementary Figure: Effects of Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract (ZSCLE) administration on the scoring index of histopathological evaluation in mice with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Values represent the mean ± SEM (n = 7). aSignificantly different from sham (p < 0.05); bSignificantly different from CLP (p < 0.05). (JPEG 189 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Zoology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of ScienceHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt

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