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Chrysophyllum cainito (apple-star): a fruit with gastroprotective activity in experimental ulcer models

Abstract

The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0.3 mg/kg), MESe (0.3 mg/kg) and MEPu (1 mg/kg) also promoted gastroprotection against ethanol/HCl. In addition, MEPe (3 mg/kg, p.o), MESe (3 mg/kg, p.o) and MEPu (10 mg/kg, p.o) reduced indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice by 78, 70 and 50%, respectively. Regarding the mode of action, the gastroprotective effect of MEPe was decreased by the pre-administration of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, a sulfhydryl group chelator, 10 mg/kg, i.p), glibenclamide (a potassium channel blocker, 10 mg/kg, i.p), yohimbine (10 mg/kg, i.p, an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p) and indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 10 mg/kg, i.p). The gastroprotective effect of MESe was reduced by the pre-administration of NEM, glibenclamide, N-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 70 mg/kg, i.p) and yohimbine, while MEPu had the gastroprotective effect decreased in animals pretreated with NEM and L-NAME. However, the extracts did not reduce gastric acid secretion. The supplementation with the flour from C. cainito fruit at 10% by 7 days, but not the juice intake, displayed gastroprotective potential, evidencing the fruit as a promising functional food. Together, the antiulcer effect of extracts of the C. cainito fruit in different experimental models was confirmed by the favoring of mucosal protective mechanisms among different, but complementary, modes of action. In parallel, the gastroprotective effects of the flour from C. cainito fruit were also described.

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Acknowledgment

We thank the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Foundation for Support to Scientific and Technological Research of the State of Santa Catarina (FAPESC) and University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI) Financial support.

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Correspondence to Sérgio Faloni de Andrade.

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da Rosa, R.L., de Almeida, C.L., Somensi, L.B. et al. Chrysophyllum cainito (apple-star): a fruit with gastroprotective activity in experimental ulcer models. Inflammopharmacol 27, 985–996 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-017-0427-z

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Keywords

  • Functional food
  • Gastroprotection
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Chrysophyllum cainito