Anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neuronal injury

Abstract

Background

Despite the immense neuromodulatory potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract as a memory enhancer, its underlying mechanism seems inadequate particularly with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Aim

The objective of the present study is to investigate the protective potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against hippocampal neuronal injury induced by trimethyltin (TMT), a potent neurotoxicant.

Methods

Male SD rats were administered trimethyltin (8.5 mg kg−1 b.wt) single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, followed by Ginkgo biloba extract (100 mg kg−1 b.wt i.p) for 21 days.

Results

The co-administration of GBE with TMT showed marked improvement in cognitive functions. Concomitantly, there was a significant decrease in oxidative stress as evident by reduction in MDA and total ROS levels. In addition, there was a marked suppression of astrocyte activation (GFAP), transcription factor NFκB and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1α, 1L-6), which were found to be elevated by TMT administration. Histopathological observations showed remarkable improvement in hippocampal neuronal injury in the conjunctive group.

Conclusion

Therefore, it is suggested that Ginkgo biloba extract is an effective agent against trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neuronal loss owing to its antioxidative as well as anti-inflammatory properties.

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Abbreviations

5 HT:

Serotonin

GBE:

Ginkgo biloba extract

GFAP:

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

GPx:

Glutathione peroxidase

GSH:

Reduced glutathione

i.p:

Intraperitoneal

IL:

Interleukins

iNOS:

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

MDA:

Malondialdehyde

NF-κB:

Nuclear factor-κB

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

TMT:

Trimethyltin

TNF-α:

Tumor necrosis factor-α

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Acknowledgements

The financial assistance to Dr. Sukhwinder Kaur in the form of junior research fellowship from the University Grant Commission is highly acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Bimla Nehru.

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We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.

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Kaur, S., Sharma, N. & Nehru, B. Anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neuronal injury. Inflammopharmacol 26, 87–104 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-017-0396-2

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Keywords

  • Ginkgo biloba extract
  • Trimethyltin
  • GFAP
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Proinflammatory
  • Cytokines