, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 363–375 | Cite as

Amelioration of oxidative and inflammatory changes by Swertia chirayita leaves in experimental arthritis

  • Harsha Lad
  • Deepak BhatnagarEmail author
Original Article


The present study was aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of Swertia chirayita leaves against oxidative and inflammatory injuries in Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritic rats. The extract was evaluated for its phytoconstituents and various invitro antioxidant properties followed by its in vivo effects. The hydroethanolic extract of S. chirayita leaves (SCE) was orally administered (200 mg/kg body weight, per day, p.o.) and the effect on the liver lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant status, protein carbonyl formation along with the histopathology of liver were evaluated after induction of adjuvant arthritis. The markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as tumor necrosis factor—α (TNF-α), interleukin 1α (IL-1α), inhibition of paw edema, along with the histological and radiographic changes in the arthritic ankle joint were studied with and without SCE administration. The result showed the presence of major phytoconstituents, such as phenolic, flavonoid and terpenoid content in SCE. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of swertiamarin and amarogentin in high concentration. The extract also showed in vitro antioxidant potential which has positive correlation with the phytoconstituents. The result of in vivo study showed elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl content indicative of LPO and protein oxidation, respectively, with compromised intracellular antioxidant defense system in arthritic rats, which were significantly normalized after SCE treatment. The increase in serum proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-1α) and paw edema of arthritic rats was significantly suppressed by SCE. Histology and radiographic analysis of arthritic ankle joints indicated abnormal changes. Marked reduction in inflammation and arthritic changes were observed after treatment with SCE. The present investigation suggests that hydroethanolic extract of S. chirayita leaves exhibit potential immunomodulatory effects, which may possibly be due to boosting the intracellular antioxidant defense.


Swertia chirayita Freund’s complete adjuvant Lipid peroxidation Swertiamarin Immunomodulatory TNF-α IL-1α 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of BiochemistryDevi Ahilya UniversityIndoreIndia

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