Green economy and carbon markets for conservation and development: a critical view

Original Paper

Abstract

Green economy aims to use economic rationality and market mechanisms to mute the most ecologically damaging effects of globalized capitalism while reviving economic growth in the global North, fostering development in the South, and decoupling economic growth from environmental decline. An archetypal application of green economy is transnational trade in ecosystem services, including reduced emissions for deforestation and degradation (REDD+). By compensating developing countries for maintaining forests as carbon sinks, this approach is meant to transcend politics and circumvent conflicts over the responsibilities of industrialized and ‘less-developed’ countries that have stymied global climate policy. However, carbon-offset trading is unlikely to result in lower greenhouse gas emissions, much less combined conservation and development gains. The troubled record of payment for environmental services and other schemes or commodification of nature illustrates that living ecosocial systems do not fit the requirements of market contracts. Disputes over proto-REDD+ projects point to the dangers that REDD+ will disadvantage or dispossess rural communities and distract attention from underlying causes of forest and livelihood loss. Two decades of all-but-futile climate negotiations have shown that global warming cannot be managed by means of technocratic expertise nor dealt with separately from the politics of inequality and the paradox of economic growth. The deceptive promise of greening with growth can blind us to these realities. Counter-hegemonic discourses to growth-centered green economy under the headings of buen vivir, mainly in the global South, and degrowth, mainly in the global North, therefore merit attention.

Keywords

Green economy Development Carbon markets Ecosystem services Degrowth Buen vivir REDD+ 

References

  1. Acosta, A. (2008). Sólo imaginando otros mundos, se cambiará éste. Reflexiones sobre el Buen Vivir. Ecuador Debate. http://www.plataformabuenvivir.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/AcostaReflexionesBuenVivir.pdf. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  2. Akram-Lodhi, A. H. (2012). Contextualising land grabbing: contemporary land deals, the global subsistence crisis and the world food system. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue Canadienne D’études Du Développement, 33(2), 119–142. doi:10.1080/02255189.2012.690726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angelsen, A., Brockhaus, M., Sunderlin, W. D., & Verchot, L. V. (Eds.). (2012). Analysing REDD+: Challenges and choices. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). http://www.cifor.org/fr/online-library/browse/view-publication/publication/3805.html. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  4. Bakker, K. (2010). The limits of “neoliberal natures”: Debating green neoliberalism. Progress in Human Geography, 34(6), 715–735. doi:10.1177/0309132510376849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbier, E. (2011). The policy challenges for green economy and sustainable economic development. Natural Resources Forum, 35(3), 233–245. doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2011.01397.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beymer-Farris, B. A., & Bassett, T. J. (2012). The REDD menace: Resurgent protectionism in Tanzania’s mangrove forests. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 332–341. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Böhm, S., & Dabhi, S. (Eds.). (2009). Upsetting the offset: the political economy of carbon markets. London: MayFlyBooks.Google Scholar
  8. Brockington, D. (2012). A radically conservative vision? The challenge of UNEP’s towards a green economy. Development and Change, 43(1), 409–422. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2011.01750.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. CARB (California Air Resources Board). (2012). Regulatory Guidance Document. http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/capandtrade/guidance/guidance.htm. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  10. Cavanagh, C., & Benjaminsen, T. A. (2014). Virtual nature, violent accumulation: The “spectacular failure” of carbon offsetting at a Ugandan National Park. Geoforum, 56, 55–65. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.06.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chomitz, K. M. (2007). At loggerheads? Agricultural expansion, poverty reduction, and environment in the tropical forests. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  12. Chomitz, K. M. (2010). Climate change and the World Bank Group: Phase II, the challenge of low-carbon development. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  13. CIFOR. (2008). How REDD+ can learn from PES. http://www.forestsclimatechange.org/highlight12.html. Accessed April 30, 2011.
  14. CMIA (Climate Markets and Investors Association). (2013). A declaration for a balanced approach to financing and implementing REDD+. http://www.ieta.org/assets/PositionPapers/redd%20declaration%20final%20email.pdf. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  15. Coase, R. H. (1960). The problem of social cost. Journal of Law and Economics, 3, 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corbera, E., Kosoy, N., & Martínez Tuna, M. (2007). Equity implications of marketing ecosystem services in protected areas and rural communities: Case studies from Meso-America. Global Environmental Change, 17(3–4), 365–380. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Alisa, G., Demaria, F., & Kallis, G. (Eds.). (2014). Degrowth: a vocabulary for a new era. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Daly, H. E., & Farley, J. C. (2003). Ecological economics. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, S. J., & Caldeira, K. (2010). Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(12), 5687–5692. doi:10.1073/pnas.0906974107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Janvry, A., & Sadoulet, E. (2006). Making conditional cash transfer programs more efficient: Designing for maximum effect of the conditionality. The World Bank Economic Review, 20(1), 1–29. doi:10.1093/wber/lhj002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dempsey, J. (2015). Fixing biodiversity loss. Environment and Planning A, 47 (in press).Google Scholar
  22. Dicken, P. (2011). Global shift: Mapping the changing contours of the world economy (6th ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Escobar, A. (2010). Latin America at a crossroads. Cultural Studies, 24(1), 1–65. doi:10.1080/09502380903424208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fairhead, J., Leach, M., & Scoones, I. (2012). Green grabbing: A new appropriation of nature? Journal of Peasant Studies, 39(2), 237–261. doi:10.1080/03066150.2012.671770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. FOEI. (2014). The great REDD gamble. Friends of the Earth International. http://www.foei.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/The-great-REDD-gamble.pdf. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  26. Forest Trends. (2013). Covering new ground: State of the forest carbon markets. http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/SOFCM-full-report.pdf. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  27. Forest Trends. (2014). Sharing the stage: State of the voluntary carbon markets. http://www.forest-trends.org/vcm2014.php. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  28. Funk, M. (2014). Windfall: The booming business of global warming. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  29. GEC. (2013). Who we are. Green Economy Coalition. http://www.greeneconomycoalition.org/about. Accessed July 19, 2013.
  30. Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971). The entropy law and the economic process. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibson-Graham, J. K. (2013). Take back the economy: An ethical guide for transforming our communities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gorz, A. (1968). Strategy for labor: A radical proposal. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  33. Grugel, J., & Riggirozzi, P. (2012). Post-neoliberalism in Latin America: Rebuilding and reclaiming the state after crisis. Development and Change, 43(1), 1–21. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2011.01746.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gudynas, E. (2011). Buen vivir: Today’s tomorrow. Development, 54(4), 441–447. doi:10.1057/dev.2011.86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamilton, C. (2013). Earthmasters: The dawn of the age of climate engineering. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Haraway, D. J. (1991). Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162(3859), 1243–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hedegaard, C. (2011). Climate protection is not DEindustrialisation, but REindustrialisation. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/commission_2010-2014/hedegaard/headlines/news/2011-11-21_01_en.htm. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  39. Heynen, N. (Ed.). (2007). Neoliberal environments: False promises and unnatural consequences. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. IISD Reporting Services. (2012). Rio+20: Third PrepCom and the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD): Summary of the Meeting. http://www.iisd.ca/uncsd/rio20/enb/. Accessed July 19, 2013.
  41. Illich, I. (1973). Tools for conviviality (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  42. IPBES/UNEP. (2011). Report of the first session of the plenary meeting to determine modalities and institutional arrangements for an intergovernmental science-policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services (No. K1173506). Nairobi: Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. http://ipbes.net/downloads/doc_download/501-report-of-the-first-session-of-the-plenary-meeting-final-en.html. Accessed June 12, 2104.
  43. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2014). Fifth assessment report—Mitigation of climate change. http://mitigation2014.org. Accessed May 5, 2014.
  44. Jackson, T. (Ed.). (2011). Prosperity without growth: economics for a finite planet. Washington, DC: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  45. Jessop, B. (2012). Economic and ecological crises: Green new deals and no-growth economies. Development, 55(1), 17–24. doi:10.1057/dev.2011.104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kissinger, G., Herold, M., & De Sy, V. (2012). Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/65505/6316-drivers-deforestation-report.pdf. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  47. Kossoy, A. (2014). State and trends of carbon pricing. World Bank. http://www.ecofys.com/files/files/world-bank-ecofys-2014-state-trends-carbon-pricing.pdf
  48. Kühne, K. (2012). REDD resistance around the world. http://www.redd-monitor.org/2012/11/14/guest-post-redd-resistance-around-the-world/. Accessed December 1, 2014.
  49. Landell-Mills, N., & Porras, I. (2002). Silver bullet or fools’ gold: A global review of markets for forest environmental services and their impacts on the poor. Stevenage: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  50. Lane, R. (2014). Resources for the future, resources for growth: the making if the 1975 growth ban. In B. Stephan & R. Lane (Eds.), The Politics of Carbon Markets (pp. 27–50). Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Lang, C. (2012). NO REDD+! in RIO +20: A declaration to decolonize the Earth and the Sky. REDD Monitor. http://www.redd-monitor.org/2012/06/19/no-redd-in-rio-20-a-declaration-to-decolonize-the-earth-and-the-sky/. Accessed July 2, 2014.
  52. Lang, M., Fernando, L., Buxton, N., Szűcs, I., & Grupo Permanente de Trabajo sobre Alternativas al Desarrollo. (2013). Beyond development alternative visions from Latin America. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute; Rosa Luxemburg Foundation. http://rosalux-europa.info/userfiles/file/Beyond_Development_RLS_TNI_2013.pdf. Accessed September 28, 2014.
  53. Lansing, D. M. (2014). Unequal access to payments for ecosystem services: The Case of Costa Rica: Unequal access to payments for ecosystem services. Development and Change,. doi:10.1111/dech.12134.Google Scholar
  54. Latouche, S. (2009). Farewell to growth. Malden, MA: Polity.Google Scholar
  55. Latour, B. (2008). It’s development, stupid! or How to modernize modernization? http://www.espacestemps.net/en/articles/itrsquos-development-stupid-or-how-to-modernize-modernization-en/. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  56. Le Blanc, D. (2011). Special issue on green economy and sustainable development. Natural Resources Forum, 35(3), 151–154. doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2011.01398.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li, T. M. (2010). Indigeneity, capitalism, and the management of dispossession. Current Anthropology, 51(3), 385–414. doi:10.1086/651942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lohmann, L. (2005). Marketing and making carbon dumps: Commodification, calculation and counterfactuals in climate change mitigation. Science as Culture, 14(3), 203–235. doi:10.1080/09505430500216783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lohmann, L. (2009). Regulation as corruption in the carbon offset markets. In S. Böhm & S. Dabhi (Eds.), Upsetting the offset: The political economy of carbon markets (pp. 175–191). London: MayFlyBooks.Google Scholar
  60. Luks, F. (2010). Deconstructing economic interpretations of sustainable development: Limits, scarcity and abundance. In L. Mehta (Ed.), The limits to scarcity: Contesting the politics of allocation (pp. 93–108). Washington, DC: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  61. Luttrell, C., Loft, L., Fernanda Gebara, M., Kweka, D., Brockhaus, M., Angelsen, A., & Sunderlin, W. D. (2013). Who should benefit from REDD+? Rationales and realities. Ecology and Society,. doi:10.5751/ES-05834-180452.Google Scholar
  62. Martínez-Alier, J., Pascual, U., Vivien, F.-D., & Zaccai, E. (2010). Sustainable de-growth: Mapping the context, criticisms and future prospects of an emergent paradigm. Ecological Economics, 69(9), 1741–1747. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.04.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McAfee, K. (2012). The contradictory logic of global ecosystem services markets. Development and Change, 43(1), 105–131. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2011.01745.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McAfee, K. (2014). The post- and future politics of green economy and REDD+. In B. Stephan & R. Land (Eds.), The Politics of Carbon Markets (pp. 237–260). Routledge: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  65. McAfee, K., & Shapiro, E. N. (2010). Payments for ecosystem services in Mexico: Nature, neoliberalism, social movements, and the state. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 100(3), 579–599. doi:10.1080/00045601003794833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McKinsey & Company. (2010). Pathways to a low-carbon economy. Sustainability and Resource Productivity Practice. http://www.mckinsey.com/client_service/sustainability/latest_thinking/pathways_to_a_low_carbon_economy. Accessed June 23, 2011.
  67. McMichael, P. (2012). Development and social change: A global perspective (5th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.Google Scholar
  68. Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J., & Behrens, W. W, I. I. I. (1972). The limits to growth: A report for the club of Rome’s project on the predicament of mankind. London: Earth Island.Google Scholar
  69. Mehta, L. (Ed.). (2010). The limits to scarcity: Contesting the politics of allocation. Washington, DC: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  70. MIU, Aliança RECOs, FEPHAC, Centro de Concentração Indígena Yuna Baka Nai Bai, CIMI, & CIMI. (2013). Open letter to the government of California. Open Letter. http://www.redd-monitor.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Open_Letter_Acre_english_portugese_spanish.pdf. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  71. Mol, A. P. J. (2002). Ecological modernization and the global economy. Global Environmental Politics, 2(2), 92–115. doi:10.1162/15263800260047844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moore, J. W. (2010). The end of the road? Agricultural revolutions in the capitalist world-ecology, 1450–2010. Journal of Agrarian Change, 10(3), 389–413. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0366.2010.00276.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Moss, N., & Nussbaum, R. (2011). A Review of Three REDD+ Safeguard Initiatives. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility and UN REDD. https://www.cbd.int/forest/doc/analysis-redd-plus-safeguard-initiatives-2011-en.pdf. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  74. Muraca, B. (2012). Towards a fair degrowth-society: Justice and the right to a “good life” beyond growth. Futures, 44(6), 535–545. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2012.03.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Muradian, R., Arsel, M., Pellegrini, L., Adaman, F., Aguilar, B., Agarwal, B., & Urama, K. (2013). Payments for ecosystem services and the fatal attraction of win-win solutions. Conservation Letters,. doi:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00309.x.Google Scholar
  76. Newell, P., & Paterson, Matthew. (2010). Climate capitalism: Global warming and the transformation of the global economy. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Norgaard, R. B. (2010). Ecosystem services: From eye-opening metaphor to complexity blinder. Ecological Economics, 69(6), 1219–1227. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. OECD. (2009). The green growth race. OECD Observer. http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/2928/The_green_growth_race.html. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  79. OECD. (2011). Towards green growth. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  80. Paech, N. (2012). Liberation from excess: The road to a post-growth economy. München: Oekom.Google Scholar
  81. Pagiola, S. (2007). Guidelines for “Pro-poor” payments for environmental services. World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEEI/Resources/ProPoorPES-2col.pdf. Accessed September 30, 2009.
  82. Pagiola, S., Bishop, J., & Landell-Mills, N. (2002). Selling forest environmental services: Market-based mechanisms for conservation and development. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  83. Pattanayak, S. K., Wunder, S., & Ferraro, P. J. (2010). Show me the money: Do payments supply environmental services in developing countries? Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 4(2), 254–274. doi:10.1093/reep/req006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pérez Orozco, A. (2014). Subversión feminista de la economía: aportes para un debate sobre el conflicto capital-vida. Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños.Google Scholar
  85. Phelps, J., Webb, E. L., & Agrawal, A. (2010). Does REDD+ threaten to recentralize forest governance? Science, 328(5976), 312–313. doi:10.1126/science.1187774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Robertson, M. (2012). Measurement and alienation: Making a world of ecosystem services. Transacation of the Institute of British Geography, 37, 386–401. doi:10.1111/j.1475-5661.2011.00476.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Point Carbon. (2014). Global carbon market contracts by 38% in 2013 as prices and volumes drop. Thompson Reuters. http://www.metal.com/newscontent/56377_global-carbon-market-contracts-38-as-prices-and-volumes-drop. Accessed December 30, 2014.
  88. Polimeni, J. M., & Polimeni, R. I. (2006). Jevons’ paradox and the myth of technological liberation. Ecological Complexity, 3(4), 344–353. doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2007.02.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Radcliffe, S. A. (2012). Development for a postneoliberal era? Sumak kawsay, living well and the limits to decolonisation in Ecuador. Geoforum, 43(2), 240–249. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2011.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Raman, M. (2012). North-South divide over Rio+20 outcome document. South Bulletin, 61. http://www.southcentre.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1709%3Asb61&catid=144%3Asouth-bulletin-individual-articles&Itemid=287&lang=en. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  91. REDD Monitor. (2013). “We reject REDD+ in all its versions”—Letter from Chiapas, Mexico opposing REDD in California’s Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32). http://www.redd-monitor.org/2013/04/30/we-reject-redd-in-all-its-versions-letter-from-chiapas-mexico-opposing-redd-in-californias-global-warming-solutions-act-ab-32/. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  92. Research and Degrowth. (2011). Definition. http://www.degrowth.org/definition-2. Accessed September 28, 2014.
  93. Rocheleau, D. (2015). Networked, rooted and territorial: Green grabbing and resistance in Chiapas. Journal of Peasant Studies, 42(3–4), 695–723. doi:10.1080/03066150.2014.993622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. ROW. (2013). California, Acre and Chiapas partnering to reduce emissions from tropical deforestation. REDD Offsets Working Group. http://greentechleadership.org/documents/2013/07/row-final-report-executive-summary.pdf. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  95. RRI. (2014). What future for reform? Progress and slowdown in forest tenure reform since 2002. Rights and Resources Initiative. http://www.rightsandresources.org/wp-content/uploads/RRI4011D_FlagshipMAR2014r13B.pdf. Accessed July 2, 2014.
  96. Salleh, A. (2011). Climate strategy: Making the choice between ecological modernisation or living well. Journal of Australian Political Economy, 66, 124–149.Google Scholar
  97. Serageldin, I. (1996). Sustainability and the wealth of nations: First steps in an ongoing journey. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  98. Shapiro-Garza, E. (2013). Contesting the market-based nature of Mexico’s national payments for ecosystem services programs. Geoforum, 46, 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, A. (1910). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations London: J. M. Dent and Sons, Ltd. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, Ltd.Google Scholar
  100. Smith, N. (2008). Uneven development: Nature, capital, and the production of space (3rd ed.). Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  101. Sorrell, S. (2009). Jevons’ paradox revisited: The evidence for backfire from improved energy efficiency. Energy Policy, 37(4), 1456–1469. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stephan, B., & Lane, R. (2014). The Politics of Carbon Markets. Routledge.Google Scholar
  103. Stern, N. H. (2009). The global deal: Climate change and the creation of a new era of progress and prosperity (1st ed.). New York, NY: PublicAffairs.Google Scholar
  104. Stewart, R. B., Kingsbury, B., & Rudyk, B. (Eds.). (2009). Climate finance: Regulatory and funding strategies for climate change and global development. New York: NYU Press Books.Google Scholar
  105. Storm, S. (2011). WDR 2010: The World Bank’s Micawberish agenda for development in a climate-constrained world. Development and Change, 42(1), 399–418. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2011.01685.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Suarez, D. (2013). You cannot manage what you do not measure”: Natural capital accounting at Rio+20. Presentation to the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  107. Sullivan, S. (2013). Banking nature? The spectacular financialisation of environmental conservation. Antipode, 45(1), 198–217. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.00989.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Swyngedouw, E. (2011). Depoliticized environments: The end of nature, climate change and the post-political condition. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements, 69, 253–274. doi:10.1017/S1358246111000300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tauli-Corpuz, V., & Baer, L.-A. (2010). The Copenhagen results of the UNFCCC; Implications for Indigenous Peoples’ local adaptation and mitigation measures. Economic and Social Council. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/E.C.19.2010.18EN.pdf. Access June 12, 2014.
  110. TEEB. (2010). The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity mainstreaming the economics of nature: a synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. http://www.teebweb.org/our-publications/teeb-study-reports/synthesis-report/.
  111. UNCSD. (2012). Address by His Excellency Evo Morales Ayma, President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Rio De Janeiro. http://webtv.un.org/search/bolivia-general-debate-3rd-plenary-meeting-rio20/1700808310001?term=Bolivia. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  112. UNEP. (2011a). Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.Google Scholar
  113. UNEP. (2011b). Decoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.Google Scholar
  114. VCS. (2013). Jurisdictional & nested REDD+. Verified carbon standard. http://www.v-c-s.org/sites/v-c-s.org/files/FactSheet%20JNRI%202013%20-%20MidRes_2.pdf. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  115. WEF. (2013). The ways and means to unlock private finance for green growth. Geneva: World Economic Forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GreenInvestment_Report_2013.pdf. Access October 24, 2014.
  116. Wood, R. G. (2011). Carbon finance and pro-poor co-benefits: The gold standard and climate, community and biodiversity standards. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  117. World Bank. (2014). Climate funds update. http://www.climatefundsupdate.org/listing. Accessed October 24, 2014.
  118. World Bank. (2011). Estimating the opportunity costs of REDD+: A training manual, Version 1.3. World Bank. http://wbi.worldbank.org/wbi/Data/wbi/wbicms/files/drupal-acquia/wbi/OppCostsREDD+manual.pdf. Accessed June 12, 2014.
  119. World Bank. (2012). Inclusive green growth: The pathway to sustainable development. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wunder, S. (2007). The efficiency of payments for environmental services in tropical conservation. Conservation Biology, 21(1), 48–58. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00559.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wunder, S. (2013). When payments for environmental services will work for conservation. Conservation Lettersdoi,. doi:10.1111/conl.12034.Google Scholar
  122. Yates, J. S., & Bakker, K. (2014). Debating the “post-neoliberal turn” in Latin America. Progress in Human Geography, 38(1), 62–90. doi:10.1177/0309132513500372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International RelationsSan Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations