There is increasing international demand by policymakers focussed on Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation for developing countries to conserve forests in the face of pressure from agriculture and energy demands. Improving forest conservation efforts requires a better understanding of how policies influence forest resources management, hence a need for better analysis of policy coherence and interaction. This study employs a content analysis of national sectoral policies in agriculture, energy and forestry, and national programmes under United Nations Rio conventions in Zambia to examine coherence and interplay between international- and national-level policies. Results show positive horizontal interplay between energy and forestry policies, while conflicts were observed between the agricultural and forestry policies despite the potential of conservation farming to provide a mutually supportive link. Policy documents show inconsistencies between national sectoral policies and national statements to the Rio conventions. Additionally, although national statements to Rio conventions share common ground on measures to address deforestation, they seem to be poorly mainstreamed into national policies and broader development policies at national level. Findings have further revealed a lack of coherence between national commitments to Rio conventions and national forest legislation. The paper concludes that although developing countries, such as Zambia, are ratifying international environmental conventions, measures are often not drafted into national policies and linkages remain largely superficial.
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Woodfuel is a combination of fuelwood (unprocessed wood, i.e. poles, branches, twigs) and charcoal.
Government Republic of Zambia
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
National Action Programme
National Adaptation Programme of Action
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation
United Nations Convention on Biodiversity
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
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The authors would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments on earlier drafts of this paper. Funding was provided by the Copperbelt University and a Commonwealth research studentship to Felix Kanungwe Kalaba.
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Kalaba, F.K., Quinn, C.H. & Dougill, A.J. Policy coherence and interplay between Zambia’s forest, energy, agricultural and climate change policies and multilateral environmental agreements. Int Environ Agreements 14, 181–198 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10784-013-9236-z
- Policy interplay
- Rio conventions