Advertisement

Shared Waters—shared Responsibility. Application of the Principles of Fairness for Burden Sharing in the Mediterranean

  • Areti D. Kontogianni
  • Michalis S. Skourtos
  • Andreas A. Papandreou
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

The paper addresses the issue of burden sharing within the context of the Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean. The initial premise is that the perceived fairness of burden sharing rules is an important factor in the success of multilateral environmental agreements. We review briefly the basic ideas behind the fairness and equity debate in global environmental affairs before we apply a number of widely accepted equity rules in the case of Mediterranean marine protection. We derive arithmetic examples to illustrate the application of the rules and compare them in terms of their political attractiveness, cost-effectiveness and practical feasibility. It is shown that the simple rule of egalitarian justice scores high on all aspects.

Keywords

Fairness Equity Mediterranean Multilateral environmental agreements Burden sharing Common but differentiated responsibilities Barcelona Convention Management of marine resources 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank F. S. Civili and F. Abousamra, both at the Coordinating Unit of UNEP/MAP, Athens, for valuable comments. The research was partly funded by the Mediterranean Action Program of the United Nations Environment Program. Finally, the authors express gratitude for the very helpful and insightful comments made by three anonymous referees and the editor.

References

  1. Barrett, S. (2003) Environment and statecraft: The strategy of environmental treaty-making. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. Blue Plan (2000). Mediterranean vision on water, population and the environment for the 21st century. Sophia-Antipolis.Google Scholar
  3. Brown Weiss, E., & Jakobson, H. K. (Eds.) (1998). Engaging countries: Strengthening compliance with international environmental accords. Cambridge Mass: MIT Press .Google Scholar
  4. Claussen, E., & McNeilly, L. (1998). Equity and Global climate change: The Complex Elements of Global Fairness. PEW Centre on Global Climate Change (available at: http://www.pewclimate.org/) .
  5. Conti, S., & Segre, A. (1998). Mediterranean geographies. Societa Geografica Italiana. CNR – Italian Committee for International Geographical Union.Google Scholar
  6. ECN/CICERO (2001). Sharing the burden of greenhouse gas mitigation. Final report of the joint CICERO-ECN project on the global differentiation of emission mitigation targets among countries. Amsterdam and Oslo.Google Scholar
  7. European Environment Agency (EEA) (1999). State and pressures of the marine and coastal Mediterranean environment. Environmental issues series no. 5, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  8. Haas, P. M. (1990). Saving the Mediterranean. The politics of international environmental cooperation. New York: Columbia UP.Google Scholar
  9. Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) (1999). Report of the concerted action on the effectiveness of international environmental agreements. Report no. R−99/05. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  10. Kayal, M. K. (2002). Regional plan for the reduction of input BOD by 50 percent by the year 2005 from industrial sources. Report for the Coordinating Unit of the Mediterranean Action Plan. Damascus University.Google Scholar
  11. Konow, J. (2003). Which Is the Fairest One of All? A Positive Analysis of Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature, 41(Dec.), 1188–1239.Google Scholar
  12. Kolstad, C. (2004). Systematic Uncertainty in Self-Enforcing International Environmental Agreements, Draft http://www.env.duke.edu/solutions/documents/kolstad-systematic_uncertainty_seiea.pdf.
  13. Milich, L., Varaby, R. G. (1998) Managing transboundary resources: Lessons from river-basin accords. Environment, 40(8), 10–41.Google Scholar
  14. Musu, I. (1997). The interdependence between environment and development: Marine pollution in the Mediterranean. In: P. Dasgupta, K.-G. Maeler, A. Vercelli (Eds.), The economics of transnational commons. Oxford: Clarendon UP.Google Scholar
  15. Pavasovic, A. (1996) the Mediterranean Action Plan phase II and the revised Barcelona Convention: New prospective for integrated coastal management in the Mediterranean region. Ocean and Coastal Management, 31, 133–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rawls, J. (1971) A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ Press .Google Scholar
  17. Skjaerseth, J. B. (1996). The 20th Anniversary of the Mediterranean Action Plan: Reason to celebrate? Green Globe Yearbook.Google Scholar
  18. Schelling, T. (1960). The strategy of conflict, 1980 Ed., Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Skourtos, M., & Kontogianni, A. (2003). Shared waters – shared responsibility. Application of the principles of burden sharing in the Mediterranean. CSERGE Working paper ECM 03–06.Google Scholar
  20. Swanson, T. (2001). Negotiating effective international environmental agreements: Is an Objective approach to differential treatment possible? International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 1, 125–153.Google Scholar
  21. Torvanger, A., & Godal, O. (1999). A survey of differentiation methods for national greenhouse gas reduction targets. CICERO Report 1999–5, Oslo.Google Scholar
  22. Tulkens, H. (1998). Cooperative versus free-riding in international environmental affairs: two approaches. In: Hanley, N., Folmer, H. (Eds.), Game theory and the environment (pp. 30–44). Chapter 2. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, UK.Google Scholar
  23. UNEP/MAP (1999a). Strategic Action Programme to Address Pollution From land-based Activities. Athens.Google Scholar
  24. UNEP/MAP (1999b). Identification of priority pollution hot spots and sensitive areas in the Mediterranean. MAP Technical Reports Series no. 124. UNEP/MAP Athens.Google Scholar
  25. UNEP/MAP (2001a). Protecting the Mediterranean from Land-Based Pollution. UNEP/MAP, Athens.Google Scholar
  26. UNEP/MAP (2001b). Free Trade and the Environment in the Euro-Mediterranean Context. First Synthesis Report for the Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development (MCSD). Blue Plan Regional Activity Center Sophia Antipolis, March 2001.Google Scholar
  27. UNEP/MAP/PAP (2001). White Paper: Coastal zone management in the Mediterranean. Split, Priority Actions Programme.Google Scholar
  28. UNEP/MAP (2002). Guidelines for the Preparation of the Baseline Budget of Pollutants Releases. Athens.Google Scholar
  29. Vallega, A. (1995). Regional level implementation of Chapter 17: The UNEP approach to the Mediterranean. Ocean and Coastal Management, 29, 251–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vallega, A. (1996). Geographical coverage and effectiveness of the UNEP Convention on the Mediterranean. Ocean and Coastal Management, 31, 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vallega, A. (1999). Fundamentals of integrated coastal management. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Wagner, U. J. (2001). The design of stable international environmental agreements: Economic theory and political economy. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(3), 377–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yanagi, M., Munesue, Y., & Kawashima, Y. (2001). Equity rules for burden sharing in the mitigation process of climate change. Environmental Engineering and Policy, 2, 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Young, H., & Peyton (1994). Equity in theory and in practice. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Areti D. Kontogianni
    • 1
  • Michalis S. Skourtos
    • 2
  • Andreas A. Papandreou
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Marine SciencesUniversity of AegeanMytiliniGreece
  2. 2.Department of Environmental StudiesUniversity of AegeanMytiliniGreece
  3. 3.Department of EconomicsUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations