Advertisement

Journal of Indian Philosophy

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 193–240 | Cite as

Yogācāra Substrata? Precedent Frames for Yogācāra Thought Among Third-Century Yoga Practitioners in Greater Gandhāra

  • Daniel M. Stuart
Article
  • 118 Downloads

Abstract

The connection between early yogācāras, or practitioners of yoga, and later Yogācāra-vijñānavāda philosophy has long preoccupied scholars. But these connections remain obscure. This article suggests that a text that has received little attention in modern scholarship, the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthānasūtra, may shed light on aspects of early yogācāra contemplative cultures that gave rise to some of the formative dynamics of Yogācāra-vijñānavāda thought. I show how traditional Buddhist meditative practice and engagement with Abhidharma theoretics come together in the Saddharmasmṛtyuasthānasūtra to produce a novel theory of mind that mirrors many of the philosophical problematics that early and late Yogācāra-vijñānavādins confronted and attempted to work out in śāstric detail.

Keywords

Saddharmasmṛtyupasthānasūtra yogācāra Meditation ālayavijñāna Consciousness Experience 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bareau, A. (1955). Les sectes bouddhiques du petit véhicule. Saigon: École française d’Extrême-Orient.Google Scholar
  2. Barua, A. (Ed.). (1982 [1949]). The Peṭakopadesa. London: The Pali Text Society (distributed by Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.).Google Scholar
  3. Baums, S. (2014). Truth and scripture in early Buddhism: Categorial reduction as exegetical method in ancient Gandhāra and Beyond. In S. Tansen (Ed.), Buddhism across Asia: Networks of material, intellectual and cultural exchange (Vol. I, pp. 19–38). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  4. Bendall, C. (Ed.). (1970 [1897]). Çikshāsamuccaya: A Compendium of Buddhistic Teaching Compiled by Çāntideva, Chiefly From Earlier Mahāyāna-sūtras. Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag.Google Scholar
  5. Blum, J. (2012). Radical empiricism and the unremarkable nature of mystic ineffability. Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, 24(3), 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blum, J. (2014). The science of consciousness and mystical experience: An argument for radical empiricism. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 82(1), 150–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blumenberg, H. (1997 [1979]). Shipwreck with spectator: A paradigm of a metaphor for existence. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bronkhorst, J. (2012). Absorption: Human nature and Buddhist liberation. Paris: University Media.Google Scholar
  9. Cousins, L. (1981). The Paṭṭhāna and the development of the Theravādin Abhidhamma. Journal of the Pali Text Society, IX, 22–46.Google Scholar
  10. Cox, C. (1995). Disputed Dharmas, Early Buddhist Theories on Existence: An Annotated Translation of the Section on Factors Dissociated From Thought from Saṅghabhadra’s Nyāyānusāra. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  11. Cox, C. (2014). “Yogācāra prehistory: The interpretation of Bhāva, Svabhāva, Abhiniṣpanna and Pariniṣpanna in a Gāndhārī Scholastic Text.” In T. Lewis & B. M. Owens (Eds.), Sucāruvādadeśika: A Festschrift Honoring Professor Theodore Riccardi (pp. 37–74). Kathmandu: Himal Books.Google Scholar
  12. Deleanu, F. (2006). The chapter on the Mundane Path (Laukikamārga) in the Śrāvakabhūmi: A trilingual edition (Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese), Annotated translation, and introductory study. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies of the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  13. Delhey, M. (Ed.). (2009). Samāhitā Bhūmiḥ: Das Kapitel über die meditative Versenkung im Grundteil der Yogācārabhūmi. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.Google Scholar
  14. Demiéville, P. (1954). La Yogācārabhūmi de Saṅgharakṣa. Bulletin de l’Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient, 44, 340–436.Google Scholar
  15. Dennett, D. C. (1991). Consciousness explained. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.Google Scholar
  16. Dhammajoti, B. K. L. (2007). Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma. Hong Kong: Centre of Buddhist Studies, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  17. Gethin, R. (1994). Bhavaṅga and rebirth according to the Abhidhamma. In T. Skorupski & U. Pagel (Eds.), The Buddhist Forum (Vol. III, pp. 11–35). London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.Google Scholar
  18. Gnoli, R., with the assistance of T. Venkatacharya (Eds.). (1977–1978). The Gilgit manuscript of the Saṅghabhedavastu: Being the 17th and last section of the Vinaya of the Mūlasarvāstivādin. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.Google Scholar
  19. Griffiths, P. J. (1986). On being mindless: Buddhist meditation and the mind-body problem. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  20. Hamar, I. (2014). The metaphor of the painter in the Avataṃsaka-sūtra and its Chinese interpretations. Studia Orientalia Slovaca, 13(2), 175–198.Google Scholar
  21. Hardy, E. (Ed.). (1961 [1902]). The Netti-pakaraṇa, With Extracts from Dhammapāla’s Commentary. London: The Pali Text Society (Messrs. Luzac & Company, Ltd.).Google Scholar
  22. Humphrey, N. (2011). Soul dust: The magic of consciousness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hutto, D. D., & Myin, E. (2013). Radicalizing enactivism: Basic minds without content. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. Koch, C. (2004). The quest for consciousness: A neurobiological approach. Denver, CO: Roberts and Co.Google Scholar
  25. Kramer, J. (2010). The concept of the person in the Yogācāra Tradition: A study and edition of Sthiramati’s Pañcaskandhakavibhāṣā. Unpublished Habilitation, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich.Google Scholar
  26. Kramer, J. (2012). “Descriptions of ‘Feeling’ (vedanā), ‘Ideation’ (saṃjñā), and ‘The Unconditioned’ (asaṃskṛta) in Vasubandhu’s Pañcaskandhaka and Sthiramati’s Pañcaskandhakavibhāṣā.” Rocznik Orientalistyczny, LXV(1), 120–139.Google Scholar
  27. Kramer, J. (Ed.). (2013). Sthiramati’s Pañcaskandhakavibhāṣā. Sanskrit texts from the Tibetan Autonomous Region (STTAR) 16 (2 Vols.). Beijing: China Tibetology Publishing House—Austrian Academy of Sciences Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kramer, J. (2014). Indian Abhidharma Literature in Tibet: A study of the Vijñāna section of Sthiramati’s Pañcaskandhakavibhāṣā. In T. Sen (Ed.), Buddhism across Asia: Networks of material, intellectual and cultural exchange (pp. 309–325). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  29. Kramer, J. (2016). Some remarks on the proofs of the ‘Store Mind’ (Ālayavijñāna) and the development of the concept of Manas. In B. Dessein & W. Teng (Eds.), Text, history, and philosophy: Abhidharma across Buddhist scholastic traditions (Proceedings of the conference “From Abhidhamma to Abhidharma,” Ghent 2013) (pp. 146–167). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  30. Kripal, J. J. (2010). Authors of the impossible: The paranormal and the sacred. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kritzer, R. (2005). Vasubandhu and the Yogācārabhūmi, Yogācāra Elements in the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya. Studia Philologica Buddhica XVIII. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies of The International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  32. Kritzer, R. (2013). Garbhāvakrāntau (‘In the Garbhāvakrānti’), quotations from the Garbhāvakrāntisūtra in Abhidharma literature and the Yogācārabhūmi. In U. T. Kragh (Ed.), The Foundation for Yoga Practitioners (pp. 738–771). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kritzer, R. (2014). Garbhāvakrāntisūtra: The Sūtra on Entry into the Womb. Studia Philologica Buddhica XXXI. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies of The International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  34. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Lamotte, É. (1973 [1938]). La somme du grand véhicule d’Asaṅga (Mahāyānasaṃgraha). Louvain: Institut Orientaliste de Louvain.Google Scholar
  36. Li, X., & Steinkellner, E. (Eds.). (2008). Vasubandhu’s Pañcaskandhaka. Beijing: China Tibetology Publishing House and The Austrian Academy of Sciences Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lin, L., & Demiéville, P. (1949). L’aide-mémoire de la vraie loi. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve.Google Scholar
  38. Lusthaus, D. (2002). Buddhist phenomenology: A philosophical investigation of Yogācāra Buddhism and the Chʾeng Wei-shih Lun. London: Routledge/Curzon.Google Scholar
  39. Metzinger, T. (2003). Being no one: The self-model theory of subjectivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  40. Mizuno, K. (1964). On the Ārya-saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna-sūtra. Journal of Indian and Buddhist studies (Indogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyu), 12, 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nagel, T. (2012). Mind and cosmos: Why the materialist neo-Darwinian conception of nature is almost certainly false. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Noë, A. (2009). Out of our heads: Why you are not your brain, and other lessons from the biology of consciousness. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  43. Park, C. (2014). Vasubandhu, Śrīlāta, and the Sautrāntika theory of seeds. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.Google Scholar
  44. Pradhan, P. (Ed.). (1975[1967]). Abhidharmakoṣabhāṣyam of Vasubandhu. Patna: K. P. Jayaswal Research Institute.Google Scholar
  45. Schmithausen, L. (1976). On the problem of the relation of spiritual practice and philosophical theory in Buddhism. In G. Scholars (Ed.), on India: Contributions to Indian Studies (pp. 235–250). Bombay: The Cultural Department, Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany.Google Scholar
  46. Schmithausen, L. (1987). Ālayavijñāna: On the origin and the early development of a central concept of Yogācāra Philosophy. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  47. Schmithausen, L. (2005). On the problem of the external world in the Chʻeng Wei Shih Lun. Studia Philologica Buddhica, Occasional Paper Series 13. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies of the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  48. Schmithausen, L. (2014). The genesis of the Yogācāra-Vijñānavāda, responses and reflections. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  49. Siegel, D. J. (2007). The mindful brain: Reflection and attunement in the cultivation of well-being. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  50. Stuart, D. M. (2015a). A less traveled path: Saddharmasmṛtyupasthānasūtra Chapter 2, Critically edited with A Study on Its Structure and Significance for the Development of Buddhist Meditation. Sanskrit Texts From the Tibetan Autonomous Region (STTAR) 18. Beijing and Vienna: China Tibetology Publishing House—Austrian Academy of Sciences Press.Google Scholar
  51. Stuart, D. M. (2015b). Power in practice: Cosmic sovereignty envisioned in Buddhism’s Middle Period. Critical Review for Buddhist Studies, 18, 165–196.Google Scholar
  52. Stuart, D. M. (2017). Unmanifest perceptions: Mind-matter interdependence and its consequences in Buddhist thought and practice. In J. Nagashima & S. Kim (Eds.), Śrāvakabhūmi and Buddhist manuscripts (pp. 109–171). Tokyo: Nombre Inc.Google Scholar
  53. Stuart, D. M. (forthcoming 2018). Brush strokes of sentience: The painting of Saṃsāra in Buddhist Yoga. In C. DiSimone (Ed.), Reading outside the lines: On the intersection of art and texts in Buddhist Studies. Contemporary issues in Buddhist studies. Berkeley, CA: Institute for Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  54. Taves, A. (2009). Religious experience reconsidered: A building-block approach to the study of religion and other special things. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Taylor, A. C. (Ed.). (1979 [1905 and 1907]). Paṭisambhidāmagga (2 Vols.). London: The Pali Text Society (distributed by Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.).Google Scholar
  56. The Śrāvakabhūmi Study Group (Ed.). (1998). Śrāvakabhūmi, the first chapter, revised Sanskrit text and Japanese translation. Tokyo: The Institute for Comprehensive Studies of Buddhism, Taisho University.Google Scholar
  57. The Śrāvakabhūmi Study Group (Ed.). (2007). Śrāvakabhūmi, the second chapter with Asamāhita Bhūmiḥ, Śrutamayī Bhūmiḥ, Cintāmayī Bhūmiḥ, Revised Sanskrit Text and Japanese Translation. Tokyo: The Institute for Comprehensive Studies of Buddhism, Taisho University.Google Scholar
  58. Waldron, W. (2003). The Buddhist unconscious. London: Routledge/Curzon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Willemen, C., Dessein, B., & Cox, C. (1997). Sarvāstivāda Buddhist scholasticism. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  60. Yamabe, N. (1990). Bīja theory in the Viniścayasaṃgrahaṇī. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, 38(2), 929–931.Google Scholar
  61. Yamabe, N. (1999). The Sūtra on the ocean-like Samādhi of the visualization of the Buddha: The interfusion of the Chinese and Indian Cultures in Central Asia as reflected in a fifth century Apocryphal Sūtra. Doctoral Dissertation, Yale University.Google Scholar
  62. Yamabe, N. (2012). 「アーラヤ識論」. In S. Katsura (Ed.), 唯識と瑜伽行 (181–219). Shunjūsha: Tokyo.Google Scholar
  63. Yamabe, N. (2013). Parallel passages between the Manobhūmi and the *Yogācārabhūmi of Saṃgharakṣa. In U. T. Kragh (Ed.), The foundation for yoga practitioners (pp. 596–737). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Yamabe, N. (2015). A reexamination of On Being Mindless: Possible implications of the eightfold proof of Ālayavijñāna.” In K. L. Dhammajoti (Ed.), Buddhist meditative praxis, traditional teachings & modern applications (pp. 137–176). Hong Kong: Centre of Buddhist Studies, University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  65. Zacchetti, S. (2002). An early Chinese translation corresponding to chapter 6 of the Petakopadesa. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 65(1), 74–98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations