Skip to main content

The Nyāyamukha and udghaṭitajña


The Nyāyamukha by Dignāga, considered the founder of the Buddhist epistemological school, is known to have been studied intensively by East Asian Buddhists and scholars through Xuanzang’s Chinese translation. However, Jinendrabuddhi’s commentary on Dignāga’s Pramāṇasamuccaya offers a clue that helps to better understand the religio-philosophical and historical position of the Nyāyamukha in South and East Asia. The eighth-century commentator describes the Nyāyamukha as a work for highly intelligent persons (udghaṭitajña) and contrasts it to Dignāga’s Pramāṇasamuccaya. He also preserves fragments of the Nyāyamukha’s final verse, which served as the basis for a Sanskrit reconstruction of the verse, published in 2005. The present paper first examines the historical implications of Jinendrabuddhi’s interest in the Nyāyamukha and then discusses the hitherto accepted and yet problematic interpretation of its final verse. An analysis of relevant materials will include East Asian Buddhist sources in Chinese to seek evidence related to Jinendrabuddhi’s text. A detailed examination of hermeneutic aspects will lead us to reinterpreting the poison simile, “intellect-poison” (dhīviṣa or huiduyao 慧毒藥), as well as a discussion of how this term was used by Vasubandhu. This will show that it is possible that the Sanskrit reconstruction should be modified slightly.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • AAĀ = Abhisamayālaṃkār’ālokā Prajñāpāramitāvyākhyā (Commentary on Aṣṭasāhasrikā-Prajñāpāramitā) by Haribhadra, ed. U. Wogihara. Tokyo: Toyo Bunko, 1932–1935.

  • AK & AKBh = Abhidharm-Koshabhāṣya of Vasubandhu, ed. P. Pradhan. Patna: K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute, 1967.

  • AKBh Index = Index to the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya (P. Pradhan Edition), 阿毘達磨倶舎論索引, ed. A. Hirakawa, et al. 3 vols. Tokyo: Daizo Shuppan, 1973–1978.

  • AKBh (Lee) = Abhidharmakośabhāṣya of Vasubandhu. Chapter IX: Ātmavādapratiṣedha, ed. J.Ch. Lee. Tokyo: Sankibo Press, 2005.

  • AKVy = Sphuṭârthā Abhidharmakośavyākhyā, the Work of Yaśomitra, ed. U. Wogihara. 3rd reprint, Tokyo: Sankibo Buddhist Book Store, 1989.

  • Apte = The Practical Sanskrit–English Dictionary, ed. V.Sh. Apte. Reprint of the rev. and enlarged ed., Poona 1957, Kyoto: Rinsen Book, 1978.

  • Balcerowicz, P. (2008). Some remarks on the opening sections in Jaina epistemological treatises. In W. Slaje (Ed.), Śāstrārambha. Inquiries into the preamble in Sanskrit (pp. 25–81). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

  • Beal, S. (1906). Si-Yu-Ki. Buddhist Records of the Western World. Translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang (A.D. 629). 2 vols. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.

  • Beal, S. (1914). The life of Hiuen-Tsiang, by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an introduction containing an account of the works of I-tsing. Popular ed. London: Paul, Trench, Trübner.

    Google Scholar 

  • BHSD = Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, ed. F. Edgerton. Volume II: Dictionary. Reprint, Kyoto: Heirakuji Shoten, 1985.

  • Chu, J. (2004). A Study of Sataimira in Dignāga’s Definition of Pseudo-Perception (PS 1.7 cd–8ab). WZKS, 48 (published 2005), 113–149.

  • Cone, M. (Ed.). (2001). A Dictionary of Pāli. Part I: a—kh. Oxford: Pali Text Society.

    Google Scholar 

  • CPD = A Critical Pāli Dictionary begun by V. Trenckner. Vol. II: Continuing the Work of Dines Andersen and Helmer Smith, Comprising the Material Collected by W. Geiger. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1960.

  • CS = Carakasaṃhitā by Agniveśa, Revised by Charaka and Dṛidhabala, with the Āyurveda-Dīpikā Commentary of Chakrapāṇidatta, ed. V. J. Trikamji. Reprint, Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, 1992.

  • D / Derge = sDe dge Tibetan Tripiṭaka bsTan ’gyur preserved at the Faculty of Letters, University of Tokyo, ed. J. Takasaki, Z. Yamaguchi and N. Hakamaya. Tokyo: Tokyo Sekai Seiten Kanko Kyokai, 1977–1981.

  • Eltschinger, V. (2014). Buddhist epistemology as apologetics: Studies on the history, self-understanding and dogmatic foundations of Late Indian Buddhist Philosophy. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frankenhauser, U. (1996). Die Einführung der buddhistischen Logik in China. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frauwallner, E. (1957). Vasubandhu’s Vādavidhi. WZKSO, 1, 104–146 = Kl. Schr. 716–758 (= 2–44).

  • Frauwallner, E. (1959). Dignāga, sein Werk und seine Entwicklung. WZKSO, 3, 83–165 = Kl. Schr. 759–841.

  • Frauwallner, E. (1961). Landmarks in the History of Indian Logic. WZKSO, 5, 125–148 = Kl. Schr. 847–870.

  • (Frauwallner) Kl. Schr.  = Erich Frauwallner. Kleine Schriften, ed. G. Oberhammer & E. Steinkellner. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1982.

  • Freschi, E., & Pontillo, T. (2013). Rule extension strategies in ancient India: Ritual, exegetical and linguistic considerations on the Tantra- and Prasaṅga-principles. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Funayama, T. 船山徹. (2002). “Kanyaku” to “chūgoku senjutsu” no aida: Kanbun butten ni tokuyū na keitai o megutte” (「漢訳」と「中国撰述」の間―漢文仏典に特有な形態をめぐって―). Bukkyōshigaku Kenkyū, 45(1), 1–28

  • Hahn, M. (2008). The Sanskrit Text of Jñānaśrīmitra’s Vṛttamālāstuti. In D. Dimitrov, M. Hahn & R. Steiner (Eds.), Bauddhasāhityastabakāvalī. Essays and Studies on Buddhist Sanskrit Literature, Dedicated to Claus Vogel by Colleagues, Students, and Friends (pp. 93–170). Marburg: Indica et Tibetica, 2008.

  • Harrison, P. (2007). The Case of the Vanishing Poet. New Light on Śāntideva and the Śikṣā-samuccaya. In K. Klaus & J.-U. Hartmann (Eds.), Indica et Tibetica. Festschrift für Michael Hahn. Zum 65. Geburtstag von Freunden und Schülern überreicht (pp. 215–248). Wien: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.

  • Hattori, M. 服部正明. (1961). Dignāga no Han’nya-kyō kaishaku (Dignāga の般若経解釈. Dignāga’s interpretation of the Prajñāpāramitāsūtra). Bulletin of the Osaka Prefecture University (Series C: The Humanities and Social Sciences), 9, 119–136.

  • Hattori, M. 服部正明. (1968). Dignāga, On Perception, being the Pratyakṣapariccheda of Dignāga’s Pramāṇasamuccaya from the Sanskrit fragments and the Tibetan versions. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

  • Hattori, M. 服部正明. (1991). Bukkyō ronrigaku-ha no shūkyō-sei (仏教論理学派の宗教性). In S. Mayeda (Ed.), Indo Chūsei Shisō Kenkyū (インド中世思想研究) (pp. 169–153). Tokyo: Shunjusha, 1991.

  • Horiuchi, T. 堀内俊郎. (2008). How to Interpret and Preach the Buddha’s Teaching: The Discussion in Chapter 5 of the Vyākhyāyukti. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, 56(3), 1126–1130 = (90)–(94).

  • Inami, M. 稲見正浩. (1992). “Puramāna-vāruthika” Puramānashiddhi-shō no kenkyū (1) (『プラマーナ・ヴァールティカ』プラマーナシッディ章の研究 [1]. A study of the Pramāṇasiddhi Chapter of Pramāṇavārttika [1]). Hiroshima-daigaku bungakubu kiyō (広島大学文学部紀要. The Hiroshima University Studies, Faculty of Letters), 51, 59–76.

  • ISS = Inmyō shōrimonron shinsho 因明正理門論新疏 of Hōun 寶雲. Kyoto: Hishiya Tomogorō, 1845.

  • Kataoka, K. 片岡啓. (2007). Pramāṇasamuccayaṭīkā ad 1.1 wayaku (Pramāṇasamuccayaṭīkā ad 1.1和訳). South Asian Classical Studies, 2, 1–79

  • Katsura, Sh. 桂紹隆. (1982). Inmyō shōrimonron kenkyū (V) (因明正理門論研究[五]). Hiroshima-daigaku bungakubu kiyō (The Hiroshima University Studies, Literature Department), 42, 82–99.

  • Katsura, Sh.桂紹隆. (1984). Inmyō shōrimonron kenkyū (VI) (因明正理門論研究[六]). Hiroshima-daigaku bungakubu kiyō (The Hiroshima University Studies, Literature Department), 44, 43–74.

  • Katsura, Sh. 桂紹隆. (1987). Inmyō shōrimonron kenkyū (VII) (因明正理門論研究[七]). Hiroshima-daigaku bungakubu kiyō (The Hiroshima University Studies, Literature Department), 46, 46–65.

  • Katsura, Sh. 桂紹隆. (2012). Bukkō ronrigaku no kōzō to sono igi (仏教論理学の構造とその意義. The structure of Buddhist logic and its significance). In Sh. Katsura et al. (Eds.), Ninshiki-ron to ronri-gaku (認識論と論理学. Epistemology and Logic) (pp. 3–48). Tokyo: Shunjusha (Shirīzu Daijō-bukkyō, 9).

  • Katsura, Sh. 桂紹隆. (2014). The Theory of Apoha in Kuiji’s Cheng weishi lun Shuji. In: Ch.-k. Lin & M. Radich (Eds.), A distant mirror: Articulating Indic ideas in sixth and seventh century Chinese Buddhism (pp. 101–120). Hamburg: Hamburg University Press. (online version: URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:18-3-1467)

  • Kellner, B. (2004). First logic, then the Buddha? The controversy about the chapter sequence of Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇavārttika and the soteriological relevance of inference. Hōrin, 11, 147–167.

    Google Scholar 

  • La Vallée Poussin, L. de. (1923–1931). L’Abhidharmakośa de Vasubandhu. Traduit et annoté (6 Vols.). Paris: Paul Geuthner/Louvain: J.-B. Istas.

  • Lindtner, Ch. (1982). Adversaria Buddhica. WZKS, 26, 167–194.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacDonald, A. (2015). In Clear Words. The Prasannapadā, Chapter One. 2 vols. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2015. (open access:

  • MCED = Mathews’ Chinese–English Dictionary. (A Chinese–English Dictionary Compiled for the China Inland Mission by R. H. Mathews, Shanghai: China Inland Mission and Presbyterian Mission Press, 1931). Revised American edition. Reprint, Taipei: Dunhuang Shuju, 1975 (13th printing).

  • Meulenbeld, G. J. (1999–2002). A History of Indian Medical Literature (6 Vols.). Groningen: Egbert Forsten.

  • Moriyama, Sh. (2014). A comparison between the Indian and Chinese interpretations of the antinomic reason (Viruddhāvyabhicārin). In Ch.-k. Lin & M. Radich (Eds.), A distant mirror. Articulating Indic ideas in sixth and seventh century Chinese Buddhism (pp. 121–150). Hamburg: Hamburg University Press. (online version: URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:18-3-1467)

  • Moro, Sh. 師茂樹. (2015). Shōgozō shoshū no Shamon Shū “Inmyō shōrimonron chū” ni tsuite (聖語蔵所収の沙門宗『因明正理門論注』について). Journal of East Asian Buddhist Studies, 13, 135–150.

  • Murakami, Sh. 村上真完. (1993). Jinkaku-shutai-ron (reikon-ron): Kusharon hagabon yakuchū 2 (人格主体論(霊魂論)— 倶舎論破我品訳注(二)). In E. Mayeda前田恵學 (Ed.), Watanabe Fumimaro hakushi tsuitō kinen ronshū: Genshi-bukkyō to daijō-bukkyō (渡邊文麿博士追悼記念論集: 原始仏教と大乗仏教. Studies in Original Buddhism and Mahāyāna Buddhism in commemoration of late Professor Dr. Fumimaro Watanabe: Early Buddhism and Mahāyāna Buddhism) (vol. 2, pp. 99–140). Kyoto: Nagata Bunshodo.

  • MW = A SanskritEnglish Dictionary, ed. M. Monier-Williams. New ed., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1899.

  • Nanjio Catalogue = A catalogue of the Chinese translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka. The Sacred Canon of the Buddhists in China and Japan, ed. B. Nanjio. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1883.

  • NMu = Nyāyamukha (Dignāga). The Chinese version: Yinming zhengli men lun ben 因明正理門論本, trans. Xuanzang玄奘, Taishō 1628, vol. 32, pp. 1a4–6a7.

  • NPC / NP = Chinese translation of the Nyāyapraveśa[ka] (NP) of Śaṅkarasvāmin. Yinming ruzhengli lun 因明入正理論, transl. Xuanzang 玄奘, Taishō 1603, vol. 32, pp. 11a25–12c23 (with the epilogue, pp. 12c25–13b7).

  • NTSD = Tibetan-Sanskrit Dictionary, ed. J. S. Negi. 16 vols. Sarnath, Varanasi: Dictionary Unit, Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, 1993–2005.

  • Okazaki, Y. 岡崎康浩. (2005). Uddoyōtakara no ronrigaku: Bukkyō-ronrigaku tono sōkoku to sono tōtatsu-ten (ウッドヨータカラの論理学:仏教論理学との相克とその到達点. The Logic of Uddyotakara: The Conflict with Buddhist Logic and His Achievement). Kyoto: Heirakuji.

  • Ono, M. 小野基. (2012). Shinri-ron: Puramāna towa nanika (真理論—プラマーナとは何か. Theory of truth: What is the pramāṇa?). In Sh. Katsura et al. (Eds.), Ninshiki-ron to ronri-gaku (認識論と論理学. Epistemology and Logic) (pp. 155–188). Tokyo: Shunjusha (Shirīzu Daijō-bukkyō, 9).

  • P / Peking = The Tibetan Tripitaka, Peking Edition, Kept in the Library of the Otani University, Kyoto, ed. D. T. Suzuki. Tokyo/Kyoto: Tibetan Tripitaka Research Institute, 1955–1961 (Catalogue & Index in 1962).

  • Pecchia, C. (2015). Dharmakīrti on the Cessation of Suffering. A Critical Edition with Translation and Comments of Manorathanandin’s Vṛtti and Vibhūticandra’s Glosses on Pramāṇavārttika II.190216. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

  • Pruden, L. M. (Trans.). (1988–1990). Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam by Louis de La Vallée Poussin (4 vols.). Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press.

  • PS = Pramāṇasamuccaya of Dignāga.

  • PS 1 = Dignāga’s Pramāṇasamuccaya, Chapter 1. A hypothetical reconstruction of Dignāga’s Sanskrit text with the help of the two Tibetan translations on the basis of the hitherto known Sanskrit fragments and the linguistic materials gained from Jinendrabuddhi’s Ṭīkā, ed. E. Steinkellner. 2005. Online publication:

  • PSkVi = Sthiramati’s Pañcaskandhakavibhāṣā. Part I: Critical edition, ed. J. Kramer. Beijing: China Tibetology Publ. House / Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, 2013.

  • PSṬ 1 = Jinendrabuddhi’s Viśālāmalavatī Pramāṇasamuccayaṭīkā, Chapter 1, ed. E. Steinkellner, H. Krasser & H. Lasic. 2 vols. (Part 1: Critical edition, Part 2: Diplomatic edition). Beijing: China Tibetology Publ. House / Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, 2005.

  • PSṬ Ms B = Manuscript B of PSṬ 1.

  • PSṬ (T) = Tibetan translation of PSṬ by (dPang lo tsā ba) Blo gros brtan pa. Derge, Tōhoku 4268, Tshad ma, vol. 20, Ye 1–314a7; Peking, Ōtani 5766, vol. 139, Re 1a1–355a8.

  • PSV = Pramāṇasamuccayavṛtti of Dignāga.

  • PSV (K) = Tibetan translation of PSV by Kanakavarman and Mar thung Dad pa’i shes rab. Peking, Ōtani 5702, vol. 130, Ce 93b4–177a7.

  • PSV (V) = Tibetan translation of PSV by Vasudhararakṣita and Zha ma Seng ge rgyal mtshan. Derge, Tōhoku 4204, Tshad ma, vol. 1, Ce 14b1–85b7. Peking, Ōtani 5701, vol. 130, Ce 13a6–93b4.

  • PW = Sanskrit Wörterbuch, ed. O. Böhtlingk & R. Roth. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1855–1875.

  • RĀ = Nāgārjuna’s Ratnāvalī, vol. 1, The Basic Texts (Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese), ed. M. Hahn. Bonn: Indica et Tibetica Verlag, 1982.

  • Schmithausen, L. (2007). Problems with the Golden Rule in Buddhist texts. In B. Kellner, H. Krasser, H. Lasic, M. T. Much, & H. Tauscher (Eds.), Pramāṇakīrtiḥ: Papers dedicated to Ernst Steinkellner on the occasion of his 70th birthday (2 vols.; Part 2, pp. 795–824). Wien: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.

  • SCJD = SanskritChinese–Japanese Dictionary. Revised and Enlarged Edition (Kanyaku taishō Bonwa dai-jiten. Zōhokaitei-ban. 漢譯對照梵和大辭典, 増補改訂版), ed. U. Wogihara. Revised and enlarged ed. (first edition, 1974), Tokyo: Suzuki Research Foundation, 1979.

  • Shen, J. 沈剑英. (2007). Yinming zhengli men lun yijie (因明正理門論訳解). Shanghai: Zhonghua Shuju.

  • Shōgozō = Kunaichō Shōsōin Jimusho shozō Shōgozō kyōkan, dai 4 ki, kō-shu shakyō, dai 2 kai haihon (宮内庁正倉院事務所所蔵聖語蔵経巻』第 4 期甲種写経第 2 回配本. Colour Digital Recording of Shōgozō Scrolls Owned by the Office of the Shōsōin Treasure House, Imperial Household Agency. The fourth stage: Scrolls of kō-class. The second distribution), ed. Kunaichō Shōsōin Jimusho (宮内庁正倉院事務所編. Office of the Shōsōin Treasure House, Imperial Household Agency). Tokyo: Maruzen, 2011.

  • Skilling, P. (2002). Three types of Bodhisatta in Theravādin tradition: A bibliographical excursion. In Buddhist and Indian Studies in Honour of Professor Sodo Mori (pp. 91–102). Hamamatsu: Kokusai Bukkyoto Kyokai.

  • Sparham. G. (2006). Abhisamayālaṃkāra with Vṛtti and Ālokā. Vṛtti by Ārya Vimuktisena. Ālokā by Haribhadra (Vol. 1). Fremont, CA: Jain Publishing.

  • Speijer, J. S. (1886). Sanskrit syntax. Leyden: E.J. Brill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stcherbatsky, Th. (1919). The Soul theory of the Buddhists. Bulletin de l’Académie des Sciences de Russie (VI série), 13, 523–854 and 937–958.

  • Steinkellner, E. (1980). Some Sanskrit-Fragments of Jinendrabuddhi’s Viśālāmalavatī. In A. L. Basham et al. (Eds.), A corpus of Indian Studies. Essays in honour of Professor Gaurinath Sastri (pp. 96–105). Calcutta: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar.

  • Steinkellner, E. (1982). The spiritual place of the epistemological tradition in Buddhism. Nantobukkyō, 49, 1–15. (with Kōyō Shimizu’s Japanese exposition of the paper, pp. 16–18).

  • Steinkellner, E. (2005). See PS 1.

  • Steinkellner, E. (2013). Dharmakīrtis frühe Logik. Annotierte Übersetzung der logischen Teile von Pramāṇavārttika 1 mit der Vṛtti. 2 vols. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies of the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies.

  • Sugimoto, K. 杉本一樹. (1985). Shōgozō kyōkan kinenmei shūsei (1) (聖語蔵経巻紀年銘集成 (一). Collected Dated Inscriptions Found on Buddhist Sūtras in the Shōgozō Repository of the Shōsōin). Shōsōin Kiyō (正倉院紀要. Annual Report of Office of the Shōsōin Treasure House), 7, 30–42.

  • Sugiura, S. 杉浦貞二郎. (1900). Hindu Logic as Preserved in China and Japan. Philadelphia (Publications of the University of Pennsylvania).

  • T / Taishō = Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō (大正新脩大藏經), ed. J. Takakusu 高楠順次郎 & K. Watanabe 渡邊海旭. Tokyo: Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo Kankokai, 1924–1935. Reference to the text is based on the SAT Daizōkyō Text Database (

  • Takemura, Sh. 武邑尚邦. (1986). Inmyōgaku: Kigen to hensen (因明学:起源と変遷). Kyoto: Hozokan.

  • TED = Tibetan-English dictionary, ed. Chandra Das. First reprinting (original edition, Calcutta, 1902), Kyoto: Rinsen Book Company, 1969.

  • Tejima, F. 手島文倉. (1927). Genjō sanzō no inmyō-gaku (玄奘三藏の因明學). Shūkyō Kenkyū (宗教研究. Journal of Religious Studies), 4, 711–736.

  • Tillemans, T. J. F. (1990). Materials for the Study of Āryadeva, Dharmapāla and Candrakīrti. The Catuḥśataka of Āryadeva, Chapters XII and XIII, with the Commentaries of Dharmapāla and Candrakīrti: Introduction, Translation, Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese Texts, Notes (2 Vols.). Wien: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.

  • Tillemans, T. J. F. (1994). Pre-Dharmakīrti commentators on Dignāga’s definition of a thesis (pakṣalakṣaṇa). In T. Skorupski & U. Pagel (Eds.), The Buddhist Forum III 19911993. Papers in honour and appreciation of Professor David Seyfort Ruegg’s contribution to Indological, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies (pp. 295–305), London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

  • Tillemans, T. J. F. (2000). Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇavārttika: An annotated translation of the fourth chapter (parārthānumāna), Volume 1 (k. 1148). Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

  • TSD = Tibetan–Sanskrit Dictionary, ed. Lokesh Chandra. Compact edition (original edition, New Delhi 1959–1961), Kyoto: Rinsen Book, 1998.

  • Tucci, G. (1930). The Nyāyamukha of Dignāga. The oldest Buddhist text on logic after Chinese and Tibetan Materials. Heidelberg: Kommission bei O. Harrassowitz, Leipzig.

  • Tucci, G. (1947). Minor sanskrit texts on the Prajñâ-pâramitâ: 1. The Prajñâ-pâramitâ-piṇḍârtha of Diṅnâga. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1, 53–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ui, H. 宇井伯壽. (1965). Inmyō shōrimonron kaisetsu (因明正理門論解説. Exposition of the Nyāyamukha). In Indo-tetsugaku Kenkyū (印度哲学研究. Studies in Indian Philosophy) (vol. 5, pp. 505–694). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.

  • van der Kuijp, L. W. J., & McKeown, A. P. (2013). bCom ldan ral gri (1227–1305): On Indian Buddhist logic and epistemology. His commentary on Dignāga’s Pramāṇasamuccaya. Wien: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.

    Google Scholar 

  • Verhagen, P. C. (1994). A history of sanskrit grammatical literature in Tibet. Vol. 1: Transmission of the Canonical Literature. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

  • Watanabe, Sh. 渡辺照宏. (1982). Inmyōron sho myōtō shō (因明論疏明燈抄). Kokuyaku issaikyō ronsho-bu (国訳一切経論疏部), vols. 21–22. Revised edition (first edition, 1936 for vol. 1, 1958 for vol. 2), Tokyo: Daito Publishing Co.

  • WZKS = Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens / Vienna Journal of South Asian Studies.

  • WZKSO = Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Süd- und Ostasiens und Archiv für indische Philosophie.

  • Yamashita, Ts. 山下勤, & Manohar, P. R. (2007–2008). Memoirs of Vaidyas: The lives and practices of traditional medical doctors in Kerala, India (1). eJournal of Indian Medicine, 1, 43–60.

  • Yano, M. 矢野道雄. (1988). Indo-igaku gairon (インド医学概論). Tokyo: Asahi Shuppansha.

  • YBhū Index = Index to the Yogācārabhūmi (ChineseSanskrit–Tibetan) (Kan-Bon-Zō Taishō Yugashiji-ron sō-sakuin. 漢梵蔵対照瑜伽師地論総索引), ed. K. Yokoyama 横山紘一 & T. Hirosawa 廣澤隆之. Tokyo: Sankibo Busshorin, 1996.

  • Zheng, W. 鄭偉宏. (2008). Yinming zhengli men lun zhi jie (因明正理門論直解. A modern explanation of Dignāga’s Nyāyamukha). Revised edition (first edition, Shanghai 1999), Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yasutaka Muroya.

Additional information

Dedicated to Professor Masaaki Hattori.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Muroya, Y. The Nyāyamukha and udghaṭitajña . J Indian Philos 45, 281–311 (2017).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Dignāga
  • Nyāyamukha
  • Pramāṇasamuccaya
  • Jinendrabuddhi
  • Pramāṇasamuccayaṭīkā
  • Xuanzang
  • udghaṭitajña
  • udghaṭitadhīviṣa