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The dimensional structure of metaphors of career and their relations to career agency, job search self-efficacy, and negative career outlook

Abstract

We measured 16 career-related metaphors’ salience to university students and graduates (N = 577). The JOURNEY metaphor recorded the highest score (62%) with moderate levels for ENCOUNTERS AND RELATIONSHIPS, A STORY, and ROLES. Exploratory structural equation modelling revealed four factors labelled as Constraint (i.e. entrapped, struggling, or living within constraints), Personal Experience (i.e. humanistic, person-centred qualities), Complexity (i.e. complex, integrated parts of an unfolding whole), and Procedure (i.e. established protocols or systems of meaning making). This study demonstrates a framework for conceptualizing relations among career-related variables: career agency, job search self-efficacy, and negative career outlook.

Résumé

La structure dimensionnelle des métaphores de carrière et leurs liens avec l’agentivité de carrière, le sentiment d’auto-efficacité dans la recherche d’emploi, et les perspectives de carrière négatives Nous avons mesuré l’importance de 16 métaphores de carrières chez des étudiant·e·s et diplômé·e·s universitaires (N=577). La métaphore VOYAGE a enregistré le score le plus élevé (62%) avec des niveaux modérés pour RENCONTRES ET RELATIONS, HISTOIRE, et RÔLES. Une modélisation par équations structurelles exploratoire a révélé quatre facteurs nommés Contrainte (i.e. piégé, luttant, ou vivant avec des contraintes), Expérience personnelle (i.e. qualités humanistes, centrées sur la personne), Complexité (i.e. parties complexes, intégrées dans un ensemble qui se déploie), et Procédure (i.e. protocoles établis ou systèmes de production de sens). Cette étude démontre un cadre permettant de conceptualiser les relations entre les variables liées à la carrière: l’agentivité de carrière, le sentiment d’auto-efficacité dans la recherche d’emploi, et les perspectives de carrières négatives.

Zusammenfassung

Die dimensionale Struktur von Karrieremetaphern und ihre Beziehungen zur Karrieresteuerung, zum Selbstwirksamkeitserleben bei der Arbeitssuche und zu negativen Karriereerwartungen Wir haben die Bedeutung von 16 berufsbezogenen Metaphern bei Universitätsstudenten und -absolventen gemessen (N=577). Die REISE-Metapher verzeichnete die höchste Punktzahl (62%), gefolgt von tieferen Werten für KONTAKTE UND BEZIEHUNGEN, ERZÄHLUNGEN und ROLLENBILDER. Eine exploratorische Strukturgleichungsmodellierungen ergab folgende vier Faktoren: Einschränkung(d. h. Eingeschlossenheit, Kampf oder das Leben innerhalb von Einschränkungen), persönliche Erfahrung (d. h. humanistische, personenzentrierte Qualitäten), Komplexität (d. h. komplexe, interagierende Teile eines sich entfaltenden Ganzen) und Vorgehensweise (d.h. differenzierte Protokolle oder Systeme zurHerstellung von Bedeutung). Die Studie zeigt einen Rahmen für die Konzeptualisierung der Beziehungen zwischen Karrieresteuerung, Selbstwirksamkeitserleben bei der Arbeitssuche und negativen Karriereerwartungen.

Resumen

La estructura dimensional de las metáforas de la carrera y sus relaciones con la agencialidad de la carrera, la autoeficacia en la búsqueda de empleo y la perspectiva de negativa de la carrera Medimos el predominio de 16 metáforas relacionadas con la carrera estudiantes y graduados universitarios (N=577). La metáfora del VIAJE registró la puntuación más alta (62%) con niveles moderados para ENCUENTROS Y RELACIONES, UNA HISTORIA y ROLES. El modelo exploratorio de ecuaciones estructurales reveló cuatro factores que fueron etiquetados como Restricción (p.e., atrapado, luchando, o viviendo dentro de las restricciones), Experiencia Personal (p.e., cualidades humanísticas, centradas en la persona), Complejidad (p.e., partes complejas e integradas de un todo en desarrollo), y Procedimiento (p.e., protocolos establecidos o sistemas de creación de significado). Este estudio muestra un marco para conceptualizar las relaciones entre las variables relacionadas con la carrera: agencialidad de carrera, autoeficacia en la búsqueda de empleo y perspectiva de negativa de la carrera.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    We follow the methodological conventions established by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), small font capital letters are used to denote a source and target domain when conducting a metaphor analysis.

  2. 2.

    When ordinal data are examined, both item thresholds and intercepts are not simultaneously identified. Item thresholds refer to points on the unobserved response variate underlying the observed ordinal item at which observed scores, on average, change from one response category to another. For every k response categories constituting a response scale, there are k − 1 thresholds dividing the latent response variate distribution. Contrariwise, item intercepts refer to the intercept of the link between the latent factor and latent response variate. The default in Mplus is the modelling of item thresholds as reported herein.

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This research was partly funded by Graduate Careers Australia.

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Creed, A., McIlveen, P. & Perera, H. The dimensional structure of metaphors of career and their relations to career agency, job search self-efficacy, and negative career outlook. Int J Educ Vocat Guidance 21, 285–308 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-020-09442-3

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Keywords

  • Career counseling
  • Higher education
  • Metaphor