The effects of job demands, job resources, and personal resources on the psychological well-being of middle-aged workers in the United States: assessing latent profile differences

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to better understand the psychological well-being of aged workers in the job demands-resources model. We conducted a latent profile analysis on job demands, job resources, and personal resources using responses of 1018 middle-aged adults from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS 3) dataset. Results suggested four latent profiles. Differences in the research variables between the profiles were examined using analysis of variance. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the effects of the antecedents on well-being between the latent profiles. Implications for both HRD researchers and professionals are discussed.

Résumé

Les effets des demandes du travail, des ressources du travail, et des ressources personnelles sur le bien-être psychologique de travailleurs d’âge moyen aux Etats-Unis : Evaluation des différences de profils latents Le but de cette étude est de mieux comprendre le bien-être psychologique de travailleurs âgés dans le modèle demande-ressource du travail. Nous avons construit une analyse de profil latent sur les demandes du travail, les ressources du travail, et les ressources personnelles en utilisant les réponses de 1,018 adultes d’âge moyen à partir des données du National Survey of Midlife Development (« sondage national du développement de milieu de vie ») aux Etats-Unis (MIDUS 3). Les résultats suggèrent quatre profils latents. Les différences de variables de recherche entre les profils ont été examinées en utilisant une analyse de variance. Des régressions multiples ont été conduites pour comparer les effets des antécédents sur le bien-être entre les profils latents. Des implications pour les chercheurs en DRH et les professionnels sont discutées.

Zusammenfassung

Die Auswirkungen von Arbeitsanforderungen, Arbeitsressourcen und persönlichen Ressourcen auf das psychologische Wohlbefinden von Arbeitnehmenden mittleren Alters in den USA: Bewertung latenter Profilunterschiede Der Zweck dieser Studie ist es, das psychologische Wohlbefinden älterer Arbeitnehmenden im Arbeitstätigkeit-Anforderungen-Ressourcen-Modell besser zu verstehen. Wir führten eine latente Profilanalyse zu Arbeitsplatzanforderungen, Arbeitsressourcen und persönlichen Ressourcen durch, wobei wir die Antworten von 1.018 Erwachsenen mittleren Alters aus dem Datensatz der National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS 3) verwendeten. Die Ergebnisse legten vier latente Profile nahe. Unterschiede zwischen den Profilen in Hinblick auf die Forschungsvariablen wurden mittels Varianzanalyse untersucht. Multiple Regressionsanalysen wurden durchgeführt, um die Auswirkungen verschiedener Einflussfaktoren auf das Wohlbefinden zwischen den latenten Profilen zu vergleichen. Mögliche Schlussfolgerungen für HRD-Forschende und Praktizierende werden diskutiert.

Resumen

Los efectos de las demandas laborales, los recursos laborales y los recursos personales en el bienestar psicológico de los trabajadores de mediana edad en los Estados Unidos: Evaluación de las diferencias de perfil latentes El propósito de este estudio es comprender mejor el bienestar psicológico de los trabajadores de edad madura dentro del modelo laboral de demandas y recursos. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de perfil latente sobre las demandas laborales, los recursos laborales y los recursos personales, utilizando las respuestas de 1.018 adultos de mediana edad procedentes del conjunto de datos de la Encuesta Nacional sobre el Desarrollo de la Mediana Edad en los Estados Unidos (Midlife Development in the United States - MIDUS 3). Los resultados sugirieron la presencia de cuatro perfiles latentes. Las diferencias existentes en las variables de investigación entre los perfiles se examinaron mediante análisis de varianza. Se realizaron análisis de regresión múltiple para comparar los efectos de los antecedentes sobre el bienestar entre los perfiles latentes. Se discuten las implicaciones para los investigadores y profesionales del Departamento de Recursos Humanos (HRD).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1

References

  1. Akaike, H. (1974). A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 19(6), 716–723. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., Smith, R. M., & Palmer, N. F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309–328. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job demands—Resources theory. In C. Cooper & P. Chen (Eds.), Wellbeing: A complete reference guide. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job Demands-resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 273–285. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000056.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bakker, A. B., Oerlemans, W. G. M., & ten Brummelhuis, L. L. (2016). Becoming fully engaged in the workplace: What individuals and organizations can do to foster work engagement. In R. J. Burke & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The fulfilling workplace: The organization’s role in achieving individual and organizational health (pp. 55–69). Farnham, UK: Gower.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bosma, H., Marmot, M., Hemingway, H., Nicholson, A. C., Brunner, E., & Stansfeld, S. A. (1997). Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study. British Medical Journal, 314, 558–565. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7080.558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bujacz, A., Bernhard-Oettel, C., Rigotti, T., Magnusson Hanson, L., & Lindfors, P. (2018). Psychosocial working conditions among high-skilled workers: A latent transition analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(2), 223–236. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000087.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Carmel, S., Raveis, V. H., O’Rourke, N., & Tovel, H. (2017). Health, coping and subjective well-being: Results of a longitudinal study of elderly Israelis. Aging & Mental Health, 21(6), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2016.1141285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267–283. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Hertel, G., Rauschenbach, C., Thielgen, M. M., & Krumm, S. (2015). Are older workers more active copers? Longitudinal effects of age-contingent coping on strain at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(4), 514–537. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307–324. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.6.4.307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hobfoll, S. E., Johnson, R. J., Ennis, N., & Jackson, A. P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner city women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 632–643. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.3.632.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Howard, M. C., & Hoffman, M. E. (2017). Variable-centered, person-centered, and person-specific approaches: Where theory meets the method. Organizational Research Methods. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428117744021.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Jonge, J., Dormann, C., Janssen, P. P., Dollard, M. F., Landeweerd, J. A., & Nijhuis, F. J. (2001). Testing reciprocal relationships between job characteristics and psychological well-being: A cross-lagged structural equation model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(1), 29–46. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317901167217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Kahneman, D., Diener, E., & Schwarz, N. (Eds.). (1999). Well-being: Foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Karasek, R. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 285–308. https://doi.org/10.2307/2392498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Karasek, R., Baker, D., Marxer, F., Ahlbom, A., & Theorell, T. (1981). Job decision latitude, job demands, and cardiovascular disease: A prospective study of Swedish men. American Journal of Public Health, 71(7), 694–705. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.71.7.694.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Karasek, R., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Keller, A. C., Igic, I., Meier, L. L., Semmer, N. K., Schaubroeck, J. M., Brunner, B., & Elfering, A. (2017). Testing job typologies and identifying at-risk subpopulations using factor mixture models. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(4), 503–517. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000038.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kong, F., Zhao, J., & You, X. (2013). Self-esteem as mediator and moderator of the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Social Indicators Research, 112(1), 151–161. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0044-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kubovy, M. (1999). On the pleasures of the mind. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 134–154). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Lee, Y. (2019). JD-R model on psychological well-being and the moderating effect of job discrimination in the model: Findings from the MIDUS. European Journal of Training and Development, 43(3/4), 232–249. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJTD-07-2018-0059.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Lee, Y., & Eissenstat, S. J. (2018). A longitudinal examination of the causes and effects of burnout based on the job demands-resources model. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 18(3), 337–354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-018-9364-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Liebermann, S. C., Wegge, J., & Müller, A. (2013). Drivers of the expectation of remaining in the same job until retirement age: A working life span demands-resources model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(3), 347–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2012.753878.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Lo, Y., Mendell, N. R., & Rubin, D. B. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88(3), 767–778. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/88.3.767.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Maslach, C. (2003). Job burnout: New directions in research and intervention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(5), 189–192. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. McLachlan, G., & Peel, D. (2000). Finite mixture models. New York: Wiley.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  31. Moeller, J., Ivcevic, Z., White, A. E., Menges, J. I., & Brackett, M. A. (2018). Highly engaged but burned out: intra-individual profiles in the US workforce. Career Development International, 23(1), 86–105. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-12-2016-0215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén

  33. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2010). The relationships of age with job attitudes: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 63(3), 6770718. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01184.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Orth, U., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Robins, R. W. (2010). Self-esteem development from young adulthood to old age: A cohort-sequential longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(4), 645–658. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018769.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Pelfrene, E., Vlerick, P., Kittel, F., Mak, R. P., Kornitzer, M., & Backer, G. D. (2002). Psychosocial work environment and psychological well-being: Assessment of the buffering effects in the job demand–control (–support) model in belstress. Stress and Health, 18(1), 43–56. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.920.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Pierce, J. L., Gardner, D. G., Cummings, L. L., & Dunham, R. B. (1989). Organization-based self-esteem: Construct definition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 622–648. https://doi.org/10.2307/256437.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Pisanti, R., Van der Doef, M., Maes, S., Lazzari, D., & Bertini, M. (2011). Job characteristics, organizational conditions, and distress/well-being among Italian and Dutch nurses: A cross-national comparison. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48(7), 829–837. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.12.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Rijk, A. E., Blanc, P. M. L., Schaufeli, W. B., & Jonge, J. (1998). Active coping and need for control as moderators of the job demand–control model: Effects on burnout. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1998.tb00658.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  40. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Ryff, C. D. (1991). Possible selves in adulthood and old age: A Tale of Shifting Horizons. Psychology and Aging, 6, 286–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719–727. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.4.719.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the job demands-resources model: Implications for improving work and health. In G. Bauer & O. Hämmig (Eds.), Bridging occupational, organizational and public health (pp. 43–68). Dordrecht: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219–247. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.4.3.219.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Schwartz, J. E., Pieper, C. F., & Karasek, R. A. (1988). A procedure for linking psychosocial job characteristics data to health surveys. American Journal of Public Health, 78(8), 904–909. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.78.8.904.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Schwarz, G. (1978). Estimating the dimension of a model. The Annals of Statistics, 6(2), 461–464. https://doi.org/10.1214/aos/1176344136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Sclove, S. L. (1987). Application of model-selection criteria to some problems in multivariate analysis. Psychometrika, 52(3), 333–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2013). The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(2), 230–240. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Tuominen-Soini, H., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2014). Schoolwork engagement and burnout among Finnish high school students and young adults: Profiles, progressions, and educational outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 50(3), 649–662. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033898.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Van den Broeck, A., De Cuyper, N., Luyckx, K., & De Witte, H. (2012). Employees’ job demands–resources profiles, burnout and work engagement: A person-centred examination. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 33(4), 691–706. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143831X11428228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Weigl, M., Hornung, S., Parker, S. K., Petru, R., Glaser, J., & Angerer, P. (2010). Work engagement accumulation of task, social, personal resources: A three-wave structural equation model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(1), 140–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.03.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Welbourne, J. L., Eggerth, D., Hartley, T. A., Andrew, M. E., & Sanchez, F. (2007). Coping strategies in the workplace: Relationships with attributional style and job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(2), 312–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2006.10.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 179–201. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2001.4378011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). The role of personal resources in the job demands-resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(2), 121–141. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.14.2.121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daeyeon Cho.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lee, Y., Cho, D. The effects of job demands, job resources, and personal resources on the psychological well-being of middle-aged workers in the United States: assessing latent profile differences. Int J Educ Vocat Guidance 20, 501–521 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-019-09414-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Job demands
  • Job resources
  • Personal resources