Challenges in implementing ICT in career services: perspectives from career development experts

Article
  • 78 Downloads

Abstract

This article reports the findings from a phenomenographic investigation into career development experts’ conceptions of challenges involved in the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in career services. The results show that these challenges varied from (1) inadequate access to ICT, (2) inadequate access to information, and (3) inadequate skills and competencies, to (4) inadequate integration. These findings provide a deeper understanding of critical aspects that may have an important role in the further development and successful implementation of existing and emerging technologies within the guidance service sector.

Keywords

Career development Phenomenography Technology 

Résumé

Défis de la Mise en Œuvre des TIC dans les Services d’Orientation Professionnelle : Points de Vue d’Experts en Développement de Carrière Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude phénoménographique portant sur les conceptions d’experts en développement de carrière concernant la mise en œuvre des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC) dans les services d’orientation professionnelle. Les résultats montrent que les défis d’implémentation des TIC dans les services d’orientation professionnelle concernent : 1) l’accès insuffisant aux TIC, 2) l’accès insuffisant à l’information, 3) des compétences et aptitudes insuffisantes, et 4) une intégration insuffisante. Les résultats permettent une meilleure compréhension des aspects cruciaux pour le développement futur et la mise en œuvre de technologies existantes et émergeantes dans le secteur des services d’orientation.

Zusammenfasung

Herausforderungen bei der Umsetzung von IKT in Dienstleistungen der Berufs-, Studien- und Laufbahnberatung: Perspektiven aus der Sicht von Experten der Laufbahnentwicklung Dieser Artikel beinhaltet die Ergebnisse einer phänomenographischen Untersuchung über die Konzepte, welche Experten der Laufbahnentwicklung über die Herausforderungen bei der Implementierung von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) in Dienstleistungen der Berufs-, Studien- und Laufbahnberatung haben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen die folgenden Herausforderungen bei der Umsetzung von IKT in Dienstleistungen der Berufs-, Studien- und Laufbahnberatung: 1) unzureichender Zugang zu IKT, 2) unzureichender Zugang zu Informationen, 3) unzureichende Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen und 4) unzureichende Integration. Die Ergebnisse liefern ein tieferes Verständnis für kritische Aspekte, die eine wichtige Rolle in Bezug auf die Weiterentwicklung und die erfolgreiche Implementierung bestehender und neuer Technologien im Bereich der Beratungsdienste spielen können.

Resumen

Desafíos en la implementación de las TIC en los servicios de apoyo ocupacional: Perspectivas de los expertos en desarrollo profesional Este artículo informa de los hallazgos de una investigación fenomenográfica sobre las concepciones que tienen los expertos en desarrollo profesional sobre los desafíos en la implementación de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) en los servicios de apoyo ocupacional. Los resultados muestran que los desafíos en la implementación de las TIC en los servicios de apoyo ocupacional incluyen: 1) acceso inadecuado a las TIC, 2) acceso inadecuado a la información, 3) habilidades y competencias inadecuadas, y 4) integración inadecuada. Los resultados facilitan una comprensión más profunda de los aspectos críticos que pueden tener un papel importante en relación con los desarrollos posteriores y la implementación exitosa de las tecnologías existentes y emergentes en el sector de servicios de orientación.

References

  1. Åkerlind, G. (2005a). Learning about phenomenography: Interviewing, data analysis and qualitative research paradigm. In J. A. Bowden & P. Green (Eds.), Doing developmental phenomenography (pp. 63–73). Melbourne, Australia: RMIT University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Åkerlind, G. S. (2005b). Variation and commonality in phenomenographic research methods. Higher Education Research & Development, 24, 321–334.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360500284672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Åkerlind, G., Bowden, J. A., & Green, P. (2005). Learning to do phenomenography: A reflective discussion. In J. A. Bowden & P. Green (Eds.), Doing developmental phenomenography (pp. 74–100). Melbourne, Australia: RMIT University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barnes, A., La Gro, N., & Watts, A. G. (2010). Developing e-guidance competencies: The outcomes of a two-year European project to transform the professional development of career guidance practitioners. Career Research and Development: The NICEC Journal, 25, 26–32.Google Scholar
  5. Bimrose, J., & Barnes, S.-A. (2010). Labour market information (LMI), information communications and technologies (ICT) and information, advice and guidance (IAG): The way forward? London, UK: UK Commission for Employment and Skills.Google Scholar
  6. Bimrose, J., Barnes, S.-A., & Atwell, G. (2010). An investigation into the skills needed by connexions personal advisers to develop internet-based guidance. Reading, UK: CfBT Education Trust.Google Scholar
  7. Bimrose, J., Hughes, D., & Barnes, S.-A. (2011). Integrating new technologies into careers practice: Extending the knowledge base. London, UK: UK Commission for Employment and Skills.Google Scholar
  8. Bimrose, J., Kettunen, J., & Goddard, T. (2015). ICT—The new frontier? Pushing the boundaries of careers practice. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 43, 8–23.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2014.975677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowden, J. (2000a). Experience of phenomenographic research. A personal account. In J. Bowden & E. Walsh (Eds.), Phenomenography (pp. 47–61). Melbourne, Australia: Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  10. Bowden, J. (2000b). The nature of phenomenographic research. In J. Bowden & E. Walsh (Eds.), Phenomenography (pp. 1–18). Melbourne, Australia: Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  11. Bowden, J., & Green, P. (Eds.). (2005). Doing developmental phenomenography. Melbourne, Australia: RMIT University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bowden, J. A., & Green, P. J. (2010). Relationality and the myth of objectivity in research involving human participants. In J. Higgs, N. Cherry, R. Macklin, & R. Ajjawi (Eds.), Researching practice—A discourse on qualitative methodologies (pp. 105–121). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense.Google Scholar
  13. Cedefop. (2008). From policy to practice. A systemic change to lifelong guidance in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
  14. Cedefop. (2011). Lifelong guidance across Europe: Reviewing policy progress and future prospects. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
  15. Cogoi, C. (Ed.). (2005). Using ICT in guidance: Practitioner competences and training. Report of an EC Leonardo project on ICT skills for guidance counselors. Bologna, Italy: Outline Edizione.Google Scholar
  16. ELGPN [European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network]. (2010). Lifelong guidance policies: Work in progress. A report on the work of the European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network 20082010. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä.Google Scholar
  17. Eurobarometer. (2014). Special Eurobarometer 417. European area of skills and qualifications. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.Google Scholar
  18. European Council. (2004). Draft resolution of the council and of the representatives of the member states meeting within the council on strengthening policies, systems and practices in the field of guidance throughout life in Europe. Council of the European Union, 18 May 2004. Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  19. European Council. (2008). Draft resolution of the council and of the representatives of the government of the member states, meeting within the council, on better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. Brussels, Belgium: EU.Google Scholar
  20. Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2013). Computer-assisted career guidance systems: A part of NCDA history. The Career Development Quarterly, 61, 181–185.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2013.00047.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harris-Bowlsbey, J., & Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2005). Use of technology in delivering career services worldwide. The Career Development Quarterly, 54, 48–56.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2005.tb00140.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hooley, T., Hutchinson, J., & Watts, A. G. (2010). Careering through the web. The potential of Web 2.0 and 3.0 technologies for career development and career support services. London, UK: UK Commission for Employment and Skills.Google Scholar
  23. Hooley, T., Shepherd, C., & Dodd, V. (2015). Get yourself connected: Conceptualising the role of digital technologies in Norwegian career guidance. Derby, UK: International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby.Google Scholar
  24. Hoonakker, P. (2014). Information and communication technology and quality of working life: Backgrounds, facts, and figures. In C. Korunka & P. Hoonakker (Eds.), The impact of ICT on quality of working life (pp. 9–23). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Howieson, C., & Semple, S. (2013). The impact of career websites: what’s the evidence? British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 41, 287–301.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2013.773960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ITU [International Telecommunication Union]. (2017). Measuring the information society report 2017. Geneva, Switzerland: ITU.Google Scholar
  27. Jenkins, H. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Chicago, IL: John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.Google Scholar
  28. Kettunen, J. (2017). Career practitioners´ conceptions of social media and competency for social media in career services. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä, Finnish Institute for Educational Research. Studies, 32. Dissertation. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-7160-1.
  29. Kettunen, J., Sampson, J. P., Jr., & Vuorinen, R. (2015a). Career practitioners’ conceptions of competency for social media in career services. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 43, 43–56.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2014.939945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kettunen, J., & Tynjälä, P. (2017). Applying phenomenography in guidance and counselling research. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2017.1285006.Google Scholar
  31. Kettunen, J. & Vuorinen, R. (2015). The role of emerging technologies. In L. Bezanson, S. Hopkins, & B. Harrington (Chair), 2015 Symposium on building the talent pipeline. Symposium conducted at the meeting of International Centre for Career Development and Public Policy, Des Moines, IA.Google Scholar
  32. Kettunen, J., Vuorinen, R., & Ruusuvirta, O. (2016). European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives´ conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies related to national guidance policies. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 16, 327–342.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-015-9313-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kettunen, J., Vuorinen, R., & Sampson, J. P. (2013). Career practitioners’ conceptions of social media in career services. British Journal of Guidance Counselling, 41, 302–317.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2013.781572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kettunen, J., Vuorinen, R., & Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2015b). Practitioners’ experiences of social media in career services. The Career Development Quarterly, 63, 268–282.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cdq.12018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Loughland, T., Reid, A., & Petocz, P. (2002). Young people’s conceptions of environment: A phenomenographic analysis. Environmental Education Research, 8, 187–197.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620220128248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marton, F. (1986). Phenomenography—A research approach investigating different understandings of reality. Journal of Thought, 21, 28–49.Google Scholar
  37. Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and awareness. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Marton, F., & Pong, Y. W. (2005). On the unit of description in phenomenography. Higher Education Research & Development, 24, 335–348.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360500284706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nykänen, S. (2011). Towards leadership and management in guidance and counselling networks in Finland. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä.Google Scholar
  40. O’Neill, B. (2010). Media literacy and communication rights. International Communication Gazette, 72, 323–338.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048510362445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]. (2004a). Career guidance and public policy: Bridging the gap. Paris, France: OECD.Google Scholar
  42. OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]. (2004b). Career guidance: A handbook for policy makers. Paris, France: OECD.Google Scholar
  43. Osborn, D. S., Dikel, M. R., & Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2011). The internet: A tool for career planning (3rd ed.). Broken Arrow, OK: National Career Development Association.Google Scholar
  44. Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2000). Computer applications. In C. E. Watkins Jr. & V. K. Campbell (Eds.), Testing and assessment in counseling practice (2nd ed., pp. 517–544). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Sampson, J. P. (2002). Quality and ethics in internet-based guidance. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 2, 157–171.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020665316813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2008). Designing and implementing career programs: A handbook for effective practice. Broken Arrow, OK: National Career Development Association.Google Scholar
  47. Sampson, J. P. (2015, June). Why return on investment (ROI) matters. In Lynne Bezanson, Sareena Hopkins, & Brianna Harrington (Chair), 2015 Symposium on Building the Talent Pipeline. Symposium conducted at the meeting of International Centre for Career Development and Public Policy, Des Moines, IA.Google Scholar
  48. Sampson, J.P., Carr, D.L., Panke, J., Arkin, S., Minivielle, M. & Vernick, S. H. (2003). Design Strategies for Need-Based Internet Web Sites in Counseling and Career Services. Technical Report 28. Tallahassee, FL: Center for the Study of Counseling and Career Development, Florida State University.Google Scholar
  49. Sampson, J. P., Jr., & Osborn, D. S. (2014). Using information and communication technology in delivering career interventions. In P. J. Hartung, M. L. Savickas, & W. B. Walsh (Eds.), APA handbook of career intervention (Vol. 2, pp. 57–70). Applications Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  50. Stokes, A., Magnier, K., & Weaver, R. (2011). What is the use of fieldwork? Conceptions of students and staff in geography and geology. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 35, 121–141.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2010.487203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tynjälä, P. (1997). Developing education student’ conceptions of the learning process in different learning environments. Learning & Instruction, 7, 277–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(96)00029-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vigurs, K., Everitt, J., & Staunton, T. (2017). The evidence base for careers website. What works? London, UK: The Careers & Enterprice Company.Google Scholar
  53. Watts, A. G. (1986). The role of the computer in careers guidance. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 9, 145–158.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00129409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Watts, A. G. (1996). Computers in guidance. In A. G. Watts, B. Law, J. Killeen, J. M. Kidd, & R. Hawthorn (Eds.), Rethinking careers education and guidance: Theory, policy and practice (pp. 269–286). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Watts, A. G. (2002). The role of information and communication technologies in integrated career information and guidance systems: A policy perspective. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 2, 139–155.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020669832743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Watts, A. G. (2010). Policy issues relating to the use of ICT in lifelong guidance. Career Research Development: The NICEC Journal, 25, 33–39.Google Scholar
  57. Watts, A. G., Bezanson, L., & McCarthy, J. (2014). International symposia on career development and policy: Retrospect and prospect. Australian Journal of Career Development, 23, 108–117.  https://doi.org/10.1177/103841621453390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Finnish Institute for Educational ResearchUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  2. 2.Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development, The Career CenterFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations