Advertisement

Ethical issues associated with information and communication technology in counseling and guidance

  • James P. SampsonJr.Email author
  • Julia Panke Makela
Article

Abstract

For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career professionals’ efforts to address these ethical issues are introduced via a discussion of ethical, credentialing, and accreditation standards. The article concludes with a call for additional standards development, training resources, and research to shape the use of rapidly changing technologies in ways that ethically and effectively enhance client services.

Keywords

Technology Counseling and career guidance Ethical issues 

Résumé

Considérations éthiques en lien avec les technologies de l’information et de la communication dans le conseil et l’orientation. Depuis plus de 50 ans, la littérature sur la technologie de l’information et de la communication (TIC) dans le conseil et l’orientation a présenté des questions éthiques relatives au développement et à l’utilisation des technologies dans la pratique. Cet article examine les questions éthiques soulevées en les organisant en trois catégories: l’équité sociale, les ressources et les services. Les efforts des professionnels du conseil de carrière pour répondre à ces questions éthiques sont introduits par le biais d’une discussion sur les normes éthiques d’accréditation. Cet article conclut par un appel au développement de normes, de ressources de formation et de recherche, afin de définir l’utilisation de technologies en évolution constante qui puisse améliorer efficacement et éthiquement les services à la clientèle.

Zusammenfassung

Ethische Aspekte der Nutzung von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik in der Beratung für Bildung, Beruf und Beschäftigung. Seit über 50 Jahren weist die Literatur über den Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik in der Bildungs- und Berufsberatung auf ethische Aspekte der Nutzung moderner Technik hin. Dieser Beitrag untersucht solche Aspekte und gliedert sie in drei Kategorien: Soziale Gerechtigkeit, Ressourcen, Dienstleistungen. Die Bemühungen der Beratungsprofession, die Problematik durch die Entwicklung ethischer Standards oder Zertifizierungs- und Akkreditierungs-Standards zu adressieren, werden vorgestellt und diskutiert. Der Beitrag schließt mit einer Aufforderung zur Weiterentwicklung solcher Standards und entsprechender Qualifizierungsangebote sowie zu mehr Forschung, um die Nutzung dieser sich rasch verändernden Technologien so zu gestalten, dass sie sowohl ethisch als auch effektiv zur Verbesserung der Beratungsdienste beiträgt.

Resumen

Cuestiones Éticas Relacionadas con la Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación en el Asesoramiento y la Orientación. Durante más de 50 años, la literatura en el uso de la información y la comunicación (TIC) en el asesoramiento y en la orientación a presentado problemas éticos relacionados con el desarrollo y uso de tecnologías en la práctica. Este artículo revisa las cuestiones éticas planteadas, organizándolas en tres categorías: la equidad social, los recursos y los servicios. Los esfuerzos de los profesionales para abordar estas cuestiones éticas, son introducidos a través de una discusión de los estándares éticos, credenciales y acreditativos. El artículo concluye con un llamamiento al desarrollo de nuevos estándares, de recursos formativos y de investigación para moldear el uso de tecnologías que cambian rápidamente para mejorar el servicio al cliente de una manera ética y eficaz.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Helpful reviews of the manuscript were provided by Casey Dozier, Janet Lenz, Mary-Catherine McClain, Debra Osborn, and Sandy Sampson. Mary-Catherine McClain provided valuable assistance with the literature review.

References

  1. Alliance for Career Resource Professionals. (2013). 2013 ACARP standards implementation handbook. Retrieved from http://www.acrpro.org/aws/ACRP/pt/sp/standards.
  2. American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf.
  3. American Counseling Association. (2012). Licensure & certification. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/knowledge-center/licensure-requirements.
  4. American School Counselor Association. (2010). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/asca/media/asca/Other%20Media/EthicalStandards2010.pdf.
  5. Anthony, K., & Jamieson, A. (2005). Guidelines for online counseling and psychotherapy (2nd ed.). Rugby, UK: British Association for Counseling and Psychotherapy.Google Scholar
  6. Barak, A. (2003). Ethical and professional issues in career assessment on the Internet. Journal of Career Assessment, 11, 3–21. doi: 10.1177/106907202237457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bateman, P. J., Pike, J., & Butler, B. S. (2010). To disclose or not: Publicness in social networking sites. Information Technology and People, 24, 78–100. doi: 10.1108/09593841111109431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell, L. A. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook (pp. 3–15). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bysshe, S., & Parsons, D. (1999). Evaluation of learning direct. London, UK: Department for Education and Employment.Google Scholar
  10. Center for Credentialing and Education. (1997). Global career development facilitator competency areas. Greensboro, NC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nbccinternational.org/What_we_do/gcdf.
  11. Center for Credentialing and Education. (2004). Distance credentialed counselor. Greensboro, NC: Author.Google Scholar
  12. Center for Credentialing and Education. (2008). Distance credentialed facilitator. Greensboro, NC: Author.Google Scholar
  13. Chapman, W., & Katz, M. R. (1982). Summary of survey of career information systems in secondary schools and assessment of alternative types. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, G., Horan, J. J., Tompkins-Bjorkman, A., Kovalski, T., & Hackett, G. (2000). Interactive career counseling on the Internet. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 85–93. doi: 10.1177%2F106907270000800107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. (2009). 2009 Standards. Alexandria, VA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.cacrep.org/doc/2009%20Standards%20with%20cover.pdf.
  16. DiLillo, D., & Gale, E. B. (2011). To Google or not to Google: Graduate students’ use of the Internet to access personal information about clients. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 5, 160–166. doi: 10.1037/a0024441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dungy, G. (1984). Computer-assisted guidance: Determining who is ready. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 539–546.Google Scholar
  18. Epstein, S., & Lenz, J. (2008). Developing and managing career resources. Broken Arrow, OK: National Career Development Association.Google Scholar
  19. Haring-Hidore, M. (1984). In pursuit of students who do not use computers for career guidance. Journal of Counseling and Development, 63, 139–140. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1984.tb02784.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heinlen, K. T., Welfel, E. R., Richmond, E. N., & Rak, C. F. (2003). The scope of WebCounseling: A survey of services and compliance with NBCC Standards for the ethical practice of WebCounseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 81, 61–69. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2003.tb00226.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hooley, T., Hutchinson, J., & Watts, A. G. (2010). Careering through the web. London: Commission for Employment and Skills. Retrieved from http://www.ukces.org.uk/assets/ukces/docs/publications/careering-through-the-web.pdf.
  22. Humphreys, K., Winzelberg, A., & Klaw, E. (2000). Psychologists’ ethical responsibilities in Internet-based groups: Issues, strategies, and a call for dialog. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 493–496. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.31.5.493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance. (1995). IAEVG ethical standards. Ottawa, Canada: Author. Retrieved from http://www.iaevg.org/iaevg/nav.cfm?lang=2&menu=1&submenu=2.
  24. International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance. (2003). International competencies for educational and vocational guidance practitioners. Ottawa: Author. Retrieved from http://www.iaevg.org/iaevg/nav.cfm?lang=2&menu=1&submenu=5.
  25. International Society for Mental Health Online. (2000). Suggested principles for the online provision of mental health services. Retrieved from https://www.ismho.org/suggestions.asp.
  26. Kettunen, J., Vuorinen, R., & Sampson, J., Jr. (2013). Career practitioners’ conceptions of social media in career services. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 41, 301–317. doi: 10.1080/03069885.2013.781572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Makela, J. P. (2009). A case study approach to ethics in career development. Broken Arrow, OK: National Career Development Association.Google Scholar
  28. Makela, J. P. (2011, Winter). Ethics in a nutshell: Ethical foundations remain the same. Career Developments Magazine, 28(1), 23–24.Google Scholar
  29. Malone, J. F. (2007). Ethical guidelines, legal and regulatory issues in distance counseling. In J. F. Malone, R. M. Miller, & G. R. Walz (Eds.), Distance counseling: Expanding the counselor’s reach and impact (pp. 133–148). Ann Arbor, MI: Counseling Outfitters.Google Scholar
  30. Martin, S. (2010). The Internet’s ethical challenges: Should you Google your clients? Should you ‘friend’ a student on Facebook? APA Ethics Director Stephen Behnke answers those questions and more. Monitor on Psychology, 41, 32. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2010/07-08/internet.aspx.
  31. Miniwatts Marketing Group. (2012). Internet usage statistics. Bogota, Columbia: Author. Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm.
  32. National Board for Certified Counselors. (2012a). NCDA code of ethics. Greensboro, NC: Author.Google Scholar
  33. National Board for Certified Counselors. (2012b). NBCC policy regarding the provision of distance professional services. Greensboro, NC: Author.Google Scholar
  34. National Career Development Association. (2007). NCDA code of ethics. Broken Arrow, OK: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/asset_manager/get_file/3395.
  35. National Career Development Association. (2009a). Career counseling competencies. Broken Arrow, OK: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sd/news_article/37798/_self/layout_ccmsearch/true.
  36. National Career Development Association. (2009b). Career development facilitator competencies. Broken Arrow, OK: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sd/news_article/37798/_self/layout_ccmsearch/true.
  37. National Career Development Association and Association for Assessment in Counseling and Education. (2010). Career counselor assessment and evaluation competencies. Broken Arrow, OK: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/asset_manager/get_file/18143/aace-ncda_assmt_eval_competencies.
  38. Offer, M., Sampson, J. P., & Watts, A. G. (2001). Career services technology and the future. Manchester, UK: Higher Education Careers Services Unit and the National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling. doi: 10.1177/106907279900700402.
  39. Offer, M., & Watts, A. G. (1997). The Internet and careers work. NICEC briefing. Cambridge, UK: National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling.Google Scholar
  40. Oliver, L. W., & Zack, J. S. (1999). Career assessment on the Internet: An exploratory study. Journal of Career Assessment, 7, 323–356. doi: 10.1177/106907279900700402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Osborn, D. S., Dikel, M. R., & Sampson, J. P. (2011). The Internet: A tool for career planning (3rd ed.). Broken Arrow, OK: National Career Development Association.Google Scholar
  42. Pelling, N. (2009). The use of email and the Internet in counselling and psychological service: What practitioners need to know. Counselling, Psychotherapy, and Health, 5, 1–25. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealthacademy.com.au/journal_archive/cph0824.pdf.
  43. Prince, J. P., Chartrand, J. M., & Silver, D. G. (2000). Constructing a quality career assessment site. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 55–67. doi: 10.1177/106907270000800105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ravis, H. B. (2007). Challenges and special problems in distance counseling: How to respond to them. In J. F. Malone, R. M. Miller, & G. R. Walz, (Eds.), Distance counseling: Expanding the counselor’s reach and impact (pp. 119–132). Ann Arbor, MI: Counseling Outfitters. doi: 10.1080/15228830903093478.
  45. Roselle, B. E., & Hummel, T. J. (1988). Intellectual development and interaction effectiveness with DISCOVER. The Career Development Quarterly, 36, 241–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sampson, J. P., Jr. (1998). The Internet as a potential force for social change. In C. C. Lee & G. R. Walz (Eds.), Social action: A mandate for counselors (pp. 213–225). Greensboro, NC: University of North Carolina at Greensboro, ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services.Google Scholar
  47. Sampson, J. P., Jr. (1999). Effective design and use of Internet-based career resources and services. IAEVG (International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance) Bulletin, 63, 4–12.Google Scholar
  48. Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2000). Using the Internet to enhance testing in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 348–356. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01917.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2008). Designing and implementing career programs: A handbook for effective practice. Broken Arrow, OK: National Career Development Association.Google Scholar
  50. Sampson, J. P., Jr., & Bloom, J. W. (2001). The potential for success and failure of computer applications in counseling and guidance. In D. C. Locke, J. Myers, & E. L. Herr (Eds.), The handbook of counseling (pp. 613–627). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi: 10.4135/9781452229218.
  51. Sampson, J. P., Jr., Dozier, V. C., & Colvin, G. P. (2011). Translating career theory to practice: The risk of unintentional social injustice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 89, 326–337. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00097.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sampson, J. P., Jr., Kolodinsky, R. W., & Greeno, B. P. (1997). Counseling on the information highway: Future possibilities and potential problems. Journal of Counseling and Development, 75, 203–212. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1997.tb02334.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sampson, J. P., Jr., & Lumsden, J. A. (2000). Ethical issues in the design and use of Internet-based career assessment. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 21–35. doi: 10.1177/106907270000800103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sampson, J. P., Jr., McClain, M. C., Musch, E., & Reardon, R. C. (2013). Variables affecting readiness to benefit from career interventions. The Career Development Quarterly, 61, 98–109. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-0045.2013.00040.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sampson, J. P., Jr., & Pyle, K. R. (1983). Ethical issues involved with the use of computer-assisted counseling, testing and guidance systems. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61, 283–287. doi: 10.1111/j.2164-4918.1983.tb00026.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sampson, J. P., Jr., Reardon, R. C., Peterson, G. W., & Lenz, J. G. (2004). Career counseling and services: A cognitive information processing approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  57. Sampson, J. P., Jr., Shy, J. D., & Purgar, M. P. (2003). Computer-based test interpretation in career assessment: Ethical and professional issues. Journal of Career Assessment, 11, 22–39. doi: 10.1177/106907202237458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tunick, R. A., Mednick, L., & Conroy, C. (2011). A snapshot of child psychologists’ social media activity: Professional and ethical practice implications and recommendations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42, 440–447. doi: 10.1037/a0025040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Van Allen, J., & Roberts, M. C. (2011). Critical incidents in the marriage of psychology and technology: A discussion of potential ethical issues in practice, education, and policy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42, 433–439. doi: 10.1037/a0025278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vuorinen, R. (2006). Internet ohjauksessa vai ohjaus internetissä? [The Internet in guidance or guidance in the internet? Perceptions of guidance practitioners on the use of the Internet as a tool in guidance]. University of Jyväskylä, Institute for Educational Research. Research reports 19. Retrieved from http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:951-39-2635-4.
  61. Vuorinen, R., & Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2009). Ethical concerns in the design and use of e-guidance. Report prepared for the European Commission as part of the ICT Policy Support Programme for the “e-Guidance and e-Government Services project” (CIP ICT PSP 224971). Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.Google Scholar
  62. Watts, A. G., & Dent, G. (2007). The use of telephone helplines in career information and guidance. In J. F. Malone, R. M. Miller, & G. R. Walz (Eds.), Distance counseling: Expanding the counselor’s reach and impact (pp. 159–179). Ann Arbor, MI: Counseling Outfitters.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of EducationFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career DevelopmentFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  3. 3.The Career CenterFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  4. 4.The Career CenterUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA
  5. 5.Department of Educational Policy, Organization, and Leadership, College of EducationUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations