International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 58, Issue 6, pp 1892–1900 | Cite as

Cryptanalysis of Zhang et al’s Quantum Private Comparison and the Improvement

  • WanQing WuEmail author
  • HuanGuo Zhang


Based on EPR pairs, Zhang et al. analyzed the security of Yang and Tseng et al’s two QPC protocols, and proposed some new improvement strategies (Zhang and Zhang, Quantum Inform. Process. 12(5):1981–1990 2013). This paper points that Zhang et al’s protocol is insecure under a special attack, i.e. Trojan-horse attacks. To avoid this attack, we present an improved QPC protocol based on single particle encryption. Through security analysis of presented protocol, the improved protocol can resist Trojan horse attack (THA). We give a suggestion that non-orthogonal quantum states can be used to transmit information for reducing the leakage in a QPC protocol.


Quantum private comparison (QPCEPR pairs Single particle encryption Trojan horse attack 



The authors are supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China Nos. 2014CB340600, Natural Science Foundation of HeBei Province Nos. F2017201199, Science and technology research project of Hebei higher education Nos. QN2017020.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Cyber Security and ComputersHebei UniversityBaodingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Computer School of Wuhan UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

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