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Time-Symmetric Quantization in Spacetimes with Event Horizons


The standard quantization formalism in spacetimes with event horizons implies a non-unitary evolution of quantum states, as initial pure states may evolve into thermal states. This phenomenon is behind the famous black hole information loss paradox which provoked long-standing debates on the compatibility of quantum mechanics and gravity. In this paper we demonstrate that within an alternative time-symmetric quantization formalism thermal radiation is absent and states evolve unitarily in spacetimes with event horizons. We also discuss the theoretical consistency of the proposed formalism. We explicitly demonstrate that the theory preserves the microcausality condition and suggest a “reinterpretation postulate” to resolve other apparent pathologies associated with negative energy states. Accordingly as there is a consistent alternative, we argue that choosing to use time-asymmetric quantization is a necessary condition for the black hole information loss paradox.

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We are grateful to Ray Volkas for reading the manuscript and making comments. The work was partially supported by the ARC.

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Correspondence to Archil Kobakhidze.

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Kobakhidze, A., Rodd, N. Time-Symmetric Quantization in Spacetimes with Event Horizons. Int J Theor Phys 52, 2636–2642 (2013).

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  • Time-symmetric quantization
  • Hawking-Unruh radiation